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IRAN-RAMSAR-1

 

Markazi Province:                                          Done 1

Markazi Province is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. The province has eight major cities namly: Ashtian, Arak, Tafresh, Khomein, Delijan, Saveh, Sarband and Mahallat. The provincial capital is city of Arak. The province experiences mild climate in summers and dry cold winters due to the mountainous terrain.

History:

Markazi province was part of the Median Empire in the first millennium BC, which included all of the central and western parts of modern day Iran. The region considered one of the ancient settlements on the Iranian plateau. In 1600 AD (Safavid era), near the city of Arak was city of Karaj with ancient civilization, the city renamed to Astaneh after the repairs of the Imamzadeh Sahl Ebne Ali’s. In recent times, the expansion of the North-South railroad and the establishing of major industries helped boost development in the area.

Local Crafts:

Markazi province is famous for its artistic handcrafts such as Sarooq carpet, rugs, glims, and giveh (cotton summer shoes).

 

Historical Attractions

The most important historical attractions in Markazi province are:

Mansion of Ha-j Vakil and old bazaar are in city of Arak. Hills of Bala Shahr Zolf are in city of Tafresh. Mansions of Mohtesham, house of Hazrat-e Imam Khomeini’s father, castles of Yujan and Shams in city of Khomein and Naragh bazaar in Delijan.

Caravansaries of Khamseh Abad, Pasangan, Abdolghaffar Khan, Khosh-k-e Roud,  ancient regions of Payk, Abdollah Abad, Kohak, Gharah Laghan, Susan-tamin, Aveh, and Khosro in Saveh. Caravansaries of Dodhak, jon Abad, historical petrograph of Khor-ha, temple of Khor-ha, fire temples of Atash-Kouh, Mil Miloneh, and Sassani Taymour Dam in Mahallat.

Religious Attractions:

Holy shrines of Imamzadeh Muhammad Abed, Hava Khatun, Prince Abdollah and mausoleum of seventy-two are in city of Arak. Mausoleum of Abo Alala, holy shrines of Imamzadeh Shahzadeh (Prince) Ahmad, Imamzadeh Shahzadeh (prince) Ghasem and dome of BeBe are in Tafresh. Shrines of Imamzadeh Esmail, Imamzadeh Abdollah are in city of Khomein. Holy shrines of Hazrat-e Masomeh and Agasha-Bulbul are in Delijon. Jam-e Mosque and Maydan-e (square) Saveh in city of Saveh. Shrine of Imamzadeh Sohail Eb-ne Ali is in Sarband. Mosques of Jam-e and Taymour are in Mahallat.

                                                                                                                             

Natural attractions:

Mighan Lake, caves of Shah Zand, Solleh Khotra, and Sefid Khani in Arak.

Hot waters mineral springs of Garov, cave of Ali Khorand-e are in Tafresh. Khordad, 15 Dam and Lake, caves of Chal Fakh-jir, Kohak are in Delijan. Ghadir Dam in Saveh area, hot springs of Shafa, springs of Sulimani, Mahallat, and caves of Azad Khan, Sorakh-e Gov, and Yekeh Chah in Mahallat.

 

Hormozgan Province:                            Done 2

Hormozgān is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the south of the country, facing Oman. Its area is 68,475 km² (26,438 sq mi), and its provincial capital is Bandar Abbas. The province has 14 islands located in the Persian Gulf, and 1,000 km (620 mi) of coastline.

The province has eleven major cities, namely: Bandar Abbas, Abumusa, Bandar Lengeh, Bandar Jask, Haji Abad, Rudan, Qeshm Island, Minab, Bastak, Bandar Khamir, and Parsian. In 2006, the population of the province was at almost 1.5 million.

The province experiences a very hot and humid climate summers and very little precipitation year round.

Hormozgan has four and five star hotels with modern amenities. The Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran lists 212 sites of historical and cultural significance in the province.

Hormozgan today has 11 ports, 5 national airports, and 3 international airports. The province has an active agriculture sector, ranking first in Iran in Lime Production and second in Date Production. Almost 30% of Iran's fishery produce comes from this province. Two major hydro dams serve the water needs of the province, namely Jegin Dam and Shemil Dam and have two free trade zones, one in Kish, the other on Qeshm Island.  

 

 

 

History

Although Hormozgan known to have had settlements during the Achaemenid era, and when Nearchus passed through this region, recorded history of the main port of Hormozgan begins with Ardashir l of Persia of the Sassanid Empire.

The province said to have been particularly prosperous between 241 BC  and 211BC,  and have grown even further in trade and commercial significance after the arrival of the Islamic era.

Marco Polo visited the port of Bandar Abbas in 1272 and 1293, and reported widespread trading in Persian jewelry, the Ivory and Silk of IndoChina, and pearls from Bahrain in the Bazaars in the port of Hormuz.

In 1497, European colonialists landed in the region for the first time, headed by Vasco da Gama. In 1506, the Portuguese, led by Alfonso d Albuquerque invaded the area with seven warships, under the pretext of protecting their interests from Egypt and Venice. The port of Hormuz was at this time considered a strategic port for commercial interests in the Persian Gulf.

Shah Ismail l was trying to counter the Ottoman Empire to the west, was unable to save the port from the Portuguese, until Shah Abbas l with the help of British was finally able to drive them out of the Persian Gulf.

The British meanwhile were competing for influence in the region with Dutch colonialists who finally invaded Qeshm Island and dispatched warships to Bandar Abbas during the final years of Shah Abbas' reign. The Persian government was unable to defend itself against this attack. However, with the souring of British and Dutch relations, military tensions further grew in the region. The Dutch finally resorted to moving their base up to Kharg Island.

The Governer (Mir Mahna) was able to defeat the Dutch forces at Kharg, leaving the British firmly in charge of the entire region. Soon Britain took control over the entire Persian Gulf via the interests of British East Indian Company.The British adopted a policy of encouraging local autonomy throughout the Persian Gulf to prevent any possible formidable unified force from threatening their establishments in the Persian Gulf. The strategic importance of the Persian Gulf further increased after World War 1 with the discovery of oil in the region.

Handcrafts and Souvenirs

The handcrafts of Hormozgan Province are earthenware pots khown as hableh, textiles worked with laced gold or silver, beding sheets, rugs, carpets, baskets, mats

and handcrafts made of shells.

Historical Attractions

The most impotant historical attraction sites in Hormozgan Province are:

Emarat-e Kolah Farangi, Mansions of Laft, Khamir in Bandar Abbas. Lashtun Mansion is in Bandar Lengeh. Portuguese Castle, ancient hills of Kolghan are in Qeshm Island and ancient city of Hormuz.

Religiouse Attractions:

Mosques of Dejgun Manbar Kohneh and Jam-e, holy shrines of Imamzadeh Shah Muhammad Taghi, Khajeh Nasir are in Bandar Abbas. Mosque of Malek Ebne Abbas is in Bandar Lengeh. Shrines of Be Be Maryam and Seyed Mozafar and Jam-e Mosque in Qeshm.

Natural Attractions:

Mineral hot water sring of Gano, forests of Mongro and protected wildlife zone of Gano, in Bandar Abbas. Hot spring of Badun, Asak, Malayeji, Charak, Faryub, and Fatuy-e are in Bandar Lengeh. Hot water spring of Haji Abad and Deh-e Sheikh are in Haji Abad, protected wild life zone of Shatur in Lavan.

 

Hamadan Province:                                                  Done  3

Hamadan Province is one of the 30 provinces of Iran located in west center of the country and its provincial capital is Hamadan, the province consists of eight counties namely: Hamadan, Asad Abad, Bahar, Toysergan, Razan, Kabodar Ahang, Malayer, Nahavand. The attraction of this friendly state lies in, waterfalls, numerous historic places, striking mountain scenery, dense forests, water springs, as well as amazing stalactite caves, stunning landscapes, splendid natural scenery, and unique local handcrafts.

In summer, it is one of the most popular attractions for vacationers and tourists from near and distant places.

The state enjoys steppe climate with mild summers and very cold and freezing winters.

 

History

Hamadan Province is one of the ancient cities with long history of civilization in the world. Excavations give evidence to existence of urbanization phase of civilization for more than three millennium years.

Hamadan’s name has been mentiond in history books and documents which dates back to 1100- BCE and the structure of the city to 700- BCE by Diya Eko- Median Emperor

Hamadan in ancient days called Ekbatana and was capital in medes and Achaemen era.

During the invasion of Arabs, Hamadan lost its educational and cultural values but still was the center of trade in old Persia. In 5th century, raids from GosTurks and later in 7th century a devastating invasion of Mongolians destroyed the city and turned the streets to “rivers of blood “. Today Hamadan is great city and has a lot to offer.

 

Local Crafts

        Ths most important handcrafts of the province are earthenware, ceramic, carpet, rug,    gelim (coarse carpet), coarse blankets, jajim, leather handcrafts and giveh (cotton summer shoes).

Historical Attractions

The important historical attractions are:

Bath houses of Farsige, and Goalestan, Asad-Abad caravanserai, memorial tomb of Seyed Jamal AlDin Asad Abadi, bridge of Khosro Abad, mansion of Hessam Almolk in Asad Abad, castle of Ashtran, Farsfaj bridge, caravanserai of Shah Abbas in Toyserkan, bridges of Kori jan and jahan  Abad in Kabodar Ahang. Noshijan castle, old bazaar and hill of Pary in Malayer.Bath house of Haji Aga Torab, hills of Gian in Nahavand. Alvand and Dokhtar castles, caravanserai of Yarim Giyeh, old bazaar, Ganj Nameh (treasure inscription), Ancient hills of Hegmataneh, Passya and Sherange are in city of Hamadan.

Religious Attraction:

Shah Tahmosb and Sultani Mosques,  holy shrine of Imamzadeh Ab Dollah Ebne Mousa AlKazem and Seyedan in Asad Abad, Mosques of  Aazam, Sheik Alikhan holy shrine of Imamzadeh Mehrabad and Naser in Toysirkan. Mosque of Sheikh Almolouk,

holy shrines of Gorgan and Zobideh Khaton are in Malayer. Jam-e Mosque and Two Sisters Shrines in Nahavand, Mosque of Nazar Big and Payghambar, holy shrines of Imamzadeh Khazar and Azna in Hamadan (in summer this place draws the attention of numerous pilgrims from neighboring townships and distant places).

 

Natural Attractions:

Peer Suliman pond in Asad Abad, beautiful sight seeing of Simineh Roud in city of Bahar. Sarab Pool, Tarik Dareh Ski Resort, hunting grounds of

Gezel Arsalan and Kochall, Afshar springs in Toyserkon, scenery and site seeing of Kocheh-chang Almas in Kabodar Ahang, site seeing of Sardeh and

Garmeh Mountains are in Malayer. Pond of Kurd Khord, scenery and recreational area of Grow and Yellow Mountains in Nahavand, Ganji Nameh water fall,  scenery and recreational area of of Abbas Abad, Moradbake, Kalaglan, Devin Canyons, and Alisadr Caves are located about 75 kilometers north of Hamadan. Ali Sadr Cave in Hamadan is the largest cave in the world.

Ardabīl                                                                                                     Done 4

Ardabil is one of 30 Provinces of Iran and it is located in the north-west of the country. The province is divided to eight counties include Bileh Savar, Pars Abad, Khalkhal, Kosar, Garmi, Meshkin Shahr, Namin and  Ardabil is the capital of Ardabil province.

Climate and Geography

Many tourists come to the region for its cool climate during the hot summer months. The winters are bitter cold.

Its famous natural region is the Sabalan Mountains. The majority of Ardabil province's population is composed of Azarbiajanis. Northeastern part of the province is habitated by Talysh. Large parts of the province are green and forested.

Neighbouring on the Caspian Sea and the Republic of Azerbaijan, the city is of great political and economical significance. The province blessed with splendid natural beauty and numerous sights.

 

History Ardabil                                         

The origins of Ardabil dates back 4000 to 6000 years (according to historical research in this city), and history of Ardabil has close connections to that of Azarbaijan province.

The province believed to be as old as the Archaemenid era and it mentioned in the Avesst, where Zoroaster born by the Aras river and wrote his book in the Sabalan Mountains. During the Islamic conquest of Iran Ardabil was the largest city in Azarbaijan, and remained so until the invation of Mongols (AD1220). City of Ardabil distroyed by Monglians and rebuilt again in safavid era. People of Ardabil are Arian Race and mostly in farming and animal husbandry.

This city was the capital of Azarbaijan province in different times, but its golden age was in the Safavid era period.

Safavid Dynasty, Shah Ismail Safavi l started his campaign to nationalize Iran's government and land from here, but consequently announced Tabriz as his capital in 1500CE. Yet Ardabil remained an important city both politically and economically until modern times.

Culture and Sights

 Ardabil province has many hot springs and beautiful natural landscapes and this attracts tourists. The mineral springs of Ardabil are Beele-Darreh, Sareyn, Sardabeh and Booshloo, being famous for their medicinal qualities throughout Iran. It has also many beauty lakes: the largest of which are Ne'or, Shoorabil, Shoor Gel, Nou Shahr and Aloocheh that are the habitats of some species of water birds. The beautiful Lake Ne'or is located in a mountainous area 48 km southeast of the city of Ardabil.

Lake Shoorabil is located in a hilly area south of the city of Ardabil. The surface of the lake covered with a thin white layer of minerals, being useful for healing skin diseases and rheumatism. Near the lake, there is the leisure complex of Shoorabil,

Handcrafts and souvenirs

Ardabil Province is well known for its carper, wickerwork,wool hand woven cloth, coarse rug, felt carpet, different metal and wooden worksinlaid, silver objects, silk, earthenware,

cushion and other handcrafts as well as sweets such as halva.

 

Historical Attractions

The significant historical Attractions are:

Collections of Sheikh Safivi, Old Bazaar, old  houses, hills of Narenj Tapeh, Sarghin, Ag Imam, Gover Tapahsi, Olo Tapasi, Miyan Tapeh, old cemeteries of Sham, Asbi, Karjan,

Tower of Shater Gonbadi, Wind Village’s Dakhmeh (cript) Sangi in village of wind are in city of Ardabil. Yakhgon Cave and cave of Haft Khaneh are in Khalkhal. Castle of Oltan, birdge of Khoda Afarin, old cemetery of Aslandor are in Dasht-e Moghan, Petrogaph of Shapour Sassani, old cemetery of Anar, old castles of Aghjeh, Div Galase in Meshkin Shahr.

 

Religiouse Attractions

Imortant religious attractions are:

Holy shrines of Imamzadeh Saleh, mosques of Mirza, Ali Akbar, and Jam-e, church of Hazrat-e Maryam, in Ardabil, holy shrines of Imamzadeh Mirzaman, and Seyed Ibrahim, Mosques of Jam-e, and New, in Khalkhal, mausoleum of Shikh Haidar, and, holy shines of Imamzadeh seyed suliman in Meshgin Shahr.

Natural attractions

Ponds of Ganjgah, Noshar, Shoorgol, Mullah Ahmad, Peer Alfaghir, wild life habitat and forest of Sabalan’s loops, Gor Gor Falls, Saraein’s  hot water springs of Bileh Darreh in Ardabil, hot water spring of Khosh Nameh, Village of Garm Khaneh’s hot mineral water in Khalkhal. Receational are of Orsi Abad’s artificial Lake Shahrak in Moghan Valley, hot water springs of Moiel, Ilan, and Doghan, srings of Ganirjeh, Ilavand and Petrograph of Shapour Sassani in Meshkin Shahr.  

 

Khozestan Province                                                               Done 5

 

Kozestan Pronvince is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in southwest of the country, bordering Iraq and Persian Gulf and its capital is Ahvaz. The province is divived to 16 couties include Abadan, Omidiyeh, Andimeshk, Ahwaz, Izel, Baq-e-Malek, Bandar Mah Shahe, Behbahan, Khorramshahr, Dezful, Dasht-e Azadegan, Ramhormoz, Shadegan, Shosh, Shushtar, and Masjed Soleiman.

The abundance of water and fertility of soil have transformed this region into a rich and well-endowed land. The variety of agricultural products such as  wheat, barley,oily seeds, rice, ucalyptus, medical herbs; the existence of many palm and citrus farms; having mountains suitable for raising olives and Sugar Cane of this fertile plain. The abundance of water supplies, rivers, and dams, also has an influence on the fishery industries, which are prevalent in the area.

Climate

The province of Khuzestan can be divided in, two regions plains with hot, dry, and mountainous regions mild and semi- warm.

The plain regions include south and west of province with hot and humid climate.

 

History

Khuzestan is the most ancient Iranian province and is often referred to as the "birthplace of the nation," since this is where the Persians one of the branches of Aryan tribes first settled, assimilating the native Elamite population , and thus laying the foundation for the future dynastic empires of Achaemenid, Parthia,  and Sassanid. The pre-Islamic Partho-Sassanid Inscriptions gives the name of the province as Khuzestan. Khuzestan is also, where the medical college and the town of Jundi Shapour located.

French archeologists such as Jaquses De Morgan date the civilization here as far back as 8000 BC when excavating areas such as Tal-i Ali-Kosh. The first large scale empire based here was that of the powerful fourth millennium BC Elamites.

Archeological ruins verify the entire province of Khuzestan to be home to the Elamite civilization, a non-Semitic, and non-Indo-European-speaking kingdom, and "the earliest civilization of Persia".

In fact, in the words of Elton L. Daniel, the Elamites were "the founders of the first Iranian empire in the geographic sense." Hence the central geopolitical significance of Khuzestan, the seat of Iran's first empire.

The provincial capital, Ahwaz is the anagram of "Avaz" and "Avaja" which appear in Darius the Great' epigraph. This word appears in Naqsh-e Rostam inscription as "Khaja" or "Khooja".

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As the Seljuk dynasty weakened, Mehrdad l  the Parthian (171-137 BC), gained ascendency over the region. During the Sassanid dynasty, this area thrived tremendously and flourished.  

The Arab invasion thus brought Khuzestan under occupation of the Arabs of the Umayyad and Abbasid Khaliphates, until Ya'qub bin Laith as-Saffar, from southeastern Iran, raised the flag of independence once more, and ultimately regained control over Khuzestan, among other parts of Iran. Khuzestan From that point on, Iranian rullers would continue to rule the region in succession as an important part of Iran.

During the Qajar era, Ahwaz flourished again with new buildings and industries.

Being on the border with Iraq, Khuzestan suffered the heaviest damage of all Iranian provinces during the Invasion of Iraq (1980-1988).What used to be Iran's largest refinery at Abadan destroyed, never to fully recover. Many of the famous nakhlestans (palm groves) annihilated, cities were destroyed, historical sites were demolished, and nearly half the province were distroyed by Saddam's invading army. This created a mass exodus into other provinces that did not have the logistical capability of taking in such a large number of refugees.

However, by 1982, Iranian forces managed to push Saddam's forces back into Iraq. The battle of "the Liberation of Khorram shahr" (one of Khuzestan's largest cities and the most important Iranian port prior to the war) was a turning point in the war, and is officially celebrated every year in Iran. Today Ahwaz is a modern community nestled among the palm groves lining the Karoon River As a focal point of Iran’s oil industry and town is one the country’s economic capitals.

Iran National Heritage Organization lists 140 sites of historical and cultural significance in Khuzestan.

UNESCO has designated an area in the province, called Arjan (known as Dasht e Arjan) as a biosphere reserve.

 

Historical Attractions:

The remaining of ruind ancient city of Sassani loor ( beginning of Islamic era ), remaing of the ruined city of Aelami Zafran Dasht, Domes of Amir Yousef, Baba Lang, Imam Reza Daymi Donabdar in Andimeshk. Ahwaz Birdge, old buildings of Jondi Shapour Univercity is in city of Ahwaz. Ancient cemetery of Shami

(Sassanid era), remaining of Susan, Shami (Parthian era), remaining of Shalo, Shivand, Castle of Dehdaz and Tange Nashlil are in Izeh city. Remaining of the ruined Manjig (Ilamian era) is in Bagh-malek. Kasra and Arjan Bridge (Sassanid era,), remaining of ruined city of Beh Govaz, petrograph of Tang Solak (Parthian era), Mansions of Kolah Farangi, Tang-eTotkab’s inscriptions of Safavid are in city of Behbahan. Old bridge of Sassani (oldest bridge in the world), Safavid era caravanseri, Chaghamish Hill and remaing of the jundi shahpour city (Sassanid era) are in city of Dezful. castle of Davod or Davod Doukhtar( Sassanid era ),Taghe Nosrat (Sassanid era ),Tomb of Hormoz (Sassanid era) in Ramhormoz, Shadravan Birdge, castle of Salasel (Sassanid era,), Ghaysar Throne, ancient city of Veskova (Partian era), house of Mostofi, Shosh (susa ) Ancient hill of Shosh, famouse castle of Shosh, world famouse temple of Yazigorat Choghaz Nabil (13 BC) are near the city of Shosh.

Iran National Heritage Organization lists 140 sites of historical and cultural significance.

In Khuzestan.UNESCO has designated an area in the province, called Arjan (known as Dasht e Arjan) as a biosphere reserve.

 

Religious Attractios:

Holy shries of Imamzadeh Abdollah in Baghmaled, shrines and mausoleum of Magom, Haydar, Reza, and Seyed are in Behbahan. Shrines and mausoleums of Alamdar, Be Be Gaj, Khajeh Khazar, are in Ramhormoz. Shah Safi Mosque and Jam-e Mosque of Shoshtar( Islamic era), shrines and mausoleum of Anbar, Agha Barakat, Shah Abulgasem in Masjed Soliman shines and mausoleum of Seyed Abbas, Seyed Taher, and Danial are the most religious attractions of the Khozestan province.

Natural Attactions:

Springs of Aein Khosh, Delloran in Andimeshk, and beautiful river of Karoon in Ahwaz, lake behind the Dezfol Dam, hot mineral spring of Golgir, and lake behind the Abbaspour Dam in Masjed Soliman are the most attraction places in Khozestan province.

 

Cuisine

Seafood is the most important part of Khuzestani Cuisine, but many other dishes also featured. A popular dish that is prepared with heavy spices, onions and cilantro simply called soboor ("shad"), after its main ingredient, a species of fish found in southern Iranian waters. Other provincial specialties include kuli-mahi ("fish stew"), kuli-meygu ("shrimp stew"), ashe-mohshala (a Khorramshahri breakfast soup), sar shir (an Andimeshki  breakfast of heavy cream), halim (a Shushtari ) breakfast of wheat meal with shredded lamb) and kohbbeh (a deep-fried rice cake with ground beef filling and other spices ).

 

 

Zanjan Province:                                      Done 6                            

 

Zanjan Province is one of the 30 provinces of Iran and located in north-west of the country and its provincial capital is Zanjan. The province is consist of seven counties include Abhar, Ejrood (zarin Abad), Khodabandeh (gaydar), Khorramdarreh, Zanjan, Tarom, and Mahneshan.   .

      Climate

Zanjan Province has a Mediterranean climate characterized by cold snowy weather in the mountains, moderate climate and semi dry in the plains in wintertime.

History of Zanjan Province

Discovery in the area of Egrud indicates Zanjan Province with old history, which goes back to third millinium B.C. During Ilkhanid Dynasty (A.D1256-1353), Sultan Muhammad Khodabandeh choosed Zanjan as Capital and city started to grow, and became one the major city of Iran. Zanjon during the invasion of Mongolians (A.D 1220), destroyed and city of Sultaniyeh near Zanjon became capital.  Zanjon referred to as Aganzana. It is said that the Sassanid king Ardashir 1 of Persia, reconstructed the city and called it Shahin but later it was renamed to Zangan, of which the present name is the arabicized formof, In past times Zanjan's name was Khamseh, which means "province with five tribes".

Local Crafts

       Zanjan known for its beautiful handcrafts such as knives, traditional sandals called       charoogh and malileh. Malileh is a handcraft made with silver wires. Zanjanian artists

make many things like various decorative dishes and their special covers as well as         silver jewelry. Many villagers today are traditional carpet and rug weavers.

Historica attractions

Sultaniyeh Dome ((made of bricks) which is one of the biggest in the world with beautiful architectural design built during Ilkhanid dynastys, Magarehay-e Dash Kassan,

hills of Alamdar, and Saeed abad are in city of Abhar. Mansions of Zolfagary, castles of Shemiran, Sunsez, and Seteye,caravansarais of Golshan, Malek, old public baths of Ghaysareyeh, Haji Dadash, Mirbaha Al-din, Rakhtshur khaneh(a traditional Qajari era laundry house), bridges of Mirbaha Al-din, Sardar, and haji Seyed Muhammad in City of Zanjan. Zanjan's Museum of Anthropology and Safavid era Bazaar are very interesting places to visit.

Religious sites:

Jam-e, and Gharaveh Mosques, shrines of Imamzadeh Zayd Alkabir, Muhammad Ibrahim and Esmail, are in Abhar city. Jam-e Mosque of Sajas, Mausoleum of Ghaydar Nabi in city of Khodabandeh, Mosques of Jam-e, Mirzaie and Gholamir, Shrine of Imamzadeh Seyed Ibrahim in city of Zanjan are the important historical religious sites in Zanjan Province.

 

Natural attractions:

Hot srings of Garmab, Incredible Kataleh Khor cave In Khodabandeh, mineral springs of Vantagh, Abdal, Arkoyen, Angoran, Allah Balaghe, Nigjeh, and preserved area of Angorun in Zanjon.

 

Semnān:                               Done 7

 

 Semnan Province is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran. It is in the north center of the country, and its center is Seman. The province of Semnan covers an area of 96,816 square Kms, stretches along the Alborz mountain range, and borders to Dasht-e Kavir desert in its southern parts. The province is divided to four counties include Semnan, Damghan, Shahroud, and Garmsar. Province had a population of about 501,000; in 2006, Semnan city (the capital of the province) had a population of 119,778.

 

Climate

The province divided into two parts: mountainous region, and the plains at the foot of the mountains. The mountainous region offers a scope for recreational activities and has mild to cold temperature and the plain region is hot and dry.

 

Crafts, Arts, and Snacks

The most artistic handcrafts made in state are:

Carpet, coarse carpet, penmanship, crockery, ceramic, and other handcrafts products, are perfect gifts and souvinirs

Semnan is also famous for its best pistachio and dried fruit.

 

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History

Semnan during the Medes and Archaemenid periods was part of Parthian dynasty regions. During Sassanid era, it accounted for being one of the largest provinces of the empire.

During the Islamic era, Semnan was part of the historical region of Gomess or Komesh, and The Silk Road paved its way from the midst of this region. Semnan was witness to numerous wars in history, in 10th century GhozTurks; and Mongolians in 13th century destroyed the city.The city was rebuilt again.

Historical Attractions:

Pre historical Hills of Hesar, resting place (Aramgah) of Peer Alamdar (Islamic era),

round tower of Chehel Doukhtars (Seljukian era.), AD 1038-1194 and brick tower of Mehmundust (SelJukian era.), in city of Damghan, Arg Sultani Gate (Qajar era.), AD 1779- 1924.

Caravansari of Shah Abbas is in city of Semnan. Castle of Biyar is in Shahroud. Caravansararais of Garmsar, Deh Namak, and Ivanaki, old bathhouses of Nine Hesar, Muhammad Abad and Chahar Bashlo, old water storage of Ali Abad, Nasar, and Kushk, old palaces of Siyah Kouh (Black Mountain), old castle of Shah Abbas, and Aien-al-rashid in Garmsar, are the most attraction places in Semnan Province.

The Cultural Historical Heritage Organization of Iran lists 470 sites of historical and cultural heritage such as palaces, forts, castles, caravansarais, ab anbars, badgirls, in Semnan.

Religious Attractions

Important religious sites in Semnan Province are:

Shines of Imamzadeh Jafar and Imamzadeh Mahmoud, Jam-e Mosque are in Damghan. Jam-e and Sultani Mosques are in Semnan. Seljuki Bastum Mosque and monastery of Ba-yazid Bastami are in Shahroud. Jam-e Mosque of Garmsar is in Garmsar.

Natural Attractions:

Most interesting natural attraction of Semnan province include preserved wild life area

of Shahroud and Parvar and beautiful scienaries of Darband in city of Semnan.

 

Sistan and Baluchestan Province:                      Done 8

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Sistān and Balūchestān is one of the 30provinces of Iran. It is in the southeast of the country, bordering Pakestan and Afghanistan and and its capital is Zahedan, with a population of 420,000 inhabitants.

The province is the largest in Iran, with an area of 181,600 km² and a population of 4.1 million. The counties of the province are Iranshar, Chahabahar, Khash, Zabol, Zahedan, Saravan and Nik shahr. In the south and west of Sistān and Balūchestān, the majorities of people are Balochi and speak the Baluchi Language.

 

Geography and culture

The province comprises two sections, Sistan in the north and Baluchestan in the south. The combined Sistan & Baluchestan province today accounts for one of the driest regions of Iran with a slight increase in rainfall from east to west, and an obvious rise in humidity in the coastal regions.

 

History

In the epigraphs of Bistoon and Persepolis, Sistan mentioned as one of the eastern territories of Darius the Great. The name Sistan, as mentioned above, is derived from Saka (also sometimes Saga, or Sagastan), one of the Aryan tribes that had taken control over this area in the year 128 BCE. During the Arsacid Dynasty (248 BC to 224 CE), the province became the seat of Suren-Pahlav Cin. (From Sassanid until the early Islamic period).

During the reign of Ardashir 1 of Persia, Sistan came under the jurisdiction of the Sassanids, and in 644CE, the Arab Muslims gained control as the Persian Empire was in its final moments of collapsing.

The region witnessed particularly heavy damage during the Mongol assault.

In 1508 CE, Shah Ismail 1 of the Safavid dynasty conquered Sistan. The ancient name of Baluchestan was Moka and through the passage of time, it changed to Mokran / Makran, which is now the southern sector of Baluchestan. This territory came to be known as Baluchestan from the time that the Baluch tribs settled here. According to the relics discovered in the hillocks of Baluchestan, the history of this region dates back to the 3000 BCE.

During the reign of the second caliph of Islam, this territory conquered by the Arabs and an Arab commander assigned as governor. In 916 CE, Baluchestan liberated by the Daylamids and thereafter the Seljukids. During Qajar era (AD 1779-1924), the provice divided to two parts Sistan and Baluchestan.

 

Historical Attractions:

Casstles of Spe- Dej, Dast-e Muhammad Khan, Pip, Feroz- Abad, Heriduk, Buzman, Daman, Maskotan, And Chel- DouKhtar ( Forty Girls ), And Naseri in  city of Iranshahr,an Important archeological findings of Shar-e Sokhteh (Burned City), Hills of Tasoki, Dahaneh-e Gholaman, castles of Taymour, Zabol, and Mil- Ghasem in city of Zabol. Castle of Sum and Robat Shorgaz caravansary of Robut are in Zahedan.

Old castle of Ghasr-e Ghandar is in Chabahar. Hills of Klartak, Robahak, Mahtub Kha-zaneha Kohak,

Seer Mir Omar and Castle of Seeb are in Saravan.

Religious Sites:

Mosques of Hakim and Sharife are in Zabol, Jam-e Mosque and Mosque-e Jam-e Tashayo Zahedan. Shrine of Imamzadeh Gholam Rasoli in Chahbahar, Mosque of Daralolum and Old Mosque in Saravan are important historical religious sites in Sistān and Balūchestān Province.

Natural attractions:

Hot Springs of Kantiy-e Tong, Horiyan, Maksan, Tasht, Jamshid, Spedej, Pozehe Dabagh, preserved area of Bozmun, Katokan Mine, wild life sanctuary of Buzman, Forest park of Bampour in Iranshahr. Springs of Scal Abad, Kashmun and Gouband promenades are in Zahedan, Mineral Springs of Dushing, Shargh Taftan, Zang, Morghab (duck), Torshab, Ganj-e Amin and Barrab, hot springs of Bar Abbak and Taftun Park in Khash and forests of Nakhla Saravan and Hirnand River in Zabol.

The two most important tribes of the proviprovince are the Brahui and Baluch tribes. Their means of livelihood, life-style, and mode of dwelling, customs, traditions, and tribal paths all form a cultural background worth seeing.

 

 

Kerman Province:                                     Done 9

Kerman province is located in the south- east of Iran and its capital is Kerman the counties of the province are: Baft, Bardsir, Bam, Jiroft, Ravar, Rafsanjan, Zarand, Sirjan, Shahr-e Babak, Kahnoj, and Kerman (11 Counties). The North, North West and central portion of province is mild and dry to the south, southeast hot, and semi damp.

Geological Characteristics

For the Iranian Paleontologists, Kerman considered a fossil paradise. Finding new dinosaur footprints in 2005 has now revealed new hopes for Paleontologists to understand better the history of this area.

Kerman

Kerman capital of Kerman province is located on a high margin of Kavir-e lut in the central south of the country and distance of 1,076 km (669 mi) south of Tehran.

Kerman mentioned by the Greeks by the name Karamani. Historical documents also refer to Kerman as Karmania and Zhermanya. The Sassanid King Ardashir 1 probably founded the city in the 3rd century, and for the reason it called"Ardashir Khoreh". Iranians used to call it Guashir.

It believed, that Kerman founded as early as the 3rd century by Ardeshir 1, founder of the Sassanian dynasty. In Islamic time, Kerman was one of the important cultural centres of Iran.

Kerman was under the Seljuk Turks in the 11th and 12th cent., but remained virtually independent, conquering Oman and Fars. When Marco Polo visited the city in 1271, it had become a major trade emporium linking the Persian Gulf with Khorasan and Central Asia, the city sacked many times by various invaders.

Kerman expanded rapidly during the Safavid Dynasty. Carpets and rugs exported to England and Germany during this period.

In 1793, Lotfali Khan defeated the Qajars and in 1794 captured Kerman. Soon, Agha Mohammad Khan besieged him in Kerman for six months.

The present city of Kerman rebuilt in the nineteenth century to the northwest of the old city, but it did not recover until the twentieth century.

 

 Historical Attractions

The most important historical sites in Kerman Province are:

 Old and new citadel (arg) of city of Bam, castle of Samorun is in Jiroft. Bagh-e Sangi, is in Sirjan. Collections of literary work of Ganjali Khan, caravansaries of Chahar Sogh, Vakil, Mirza Alinaghi,Lahaf Dozha, Haj Mehdi, Hendoha (indian), Haj Agha Ali, schools of Ganjali Khan, Hayati, Ibrahim Khan, bazaars of Arg Square, and old neighborhood of Darvazeh Vakil, Naseri, and Gonbadun Gate in Kerman and the archeological ancient city of Jiroft is located south of Kerman.

Religiouse attractions

Most important religiouse attractions in Kearman Province are:

 holy shrine of Imamzadeh Shah Suliman, Mosque of Sabahi in Rafsanjan. Mosques of Jam-e and Chehel Soton (forty pillars) are in Kerman.

 

Natural Attractions

Country side of Kabri, citrous and date yards, summer residence of Delfard and Darba

Behesht, are in Jiroft, spring of Hussein Abad, Ghasem Abad, and Abadavaran are in Rafsanjan.

Mineral spring of Sirjan. Summer residences of Mahan, Jopar, Rayn, Kouhpayeh,

and Prince Mahan Park are in Kerman.    

 

Economy and Crafts in Kerman provice

Carpet and rug weaving is one of the main industries of the city, and the carpets produced there are renowned internationally. Carpet weaving is a very old tradition in Kerman. The oldest carpet discovered in Kerman, belongs to about 500 years ago, which proves the precedence of weaving in this city. Cashmere, coarse carpet and cotton textiles and goats-wool shawls also manufactured.

Kerman Airport counted as one of the main airports that have daily & weekly flights to main cities in the country. In addition, the Trans Iranian Railway passes through this city.

A number of modern establishments such as textile mills and brickworks also been constructed. The province's mineral wealth includes copper and coal.

Pistachio of Kerman and Rafsanjan are best of the main Items in Keman province.

 

Kermanshah Province                               Done 10

 

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Kermanshah Province is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran and located in the west of the country, bordering Iraq and its capital is Kermanshah. Provice divided into ten counties include Kermanshah, West Islam Abad, Paveh, javan Roud, Sar-e-Pol-e Zohab, Sanghar, Sahneh, Ghasr-e Shirin, Gilan Gharb, and Harsin. Province has a moderate and mountainous climate.

 

 

City of Kermanshah

Kermanshah is capital of Kermanshah Province, in the Karkheh River valley. The city is the commercial center for grain, flour, rice, vegetables, fruits oil seeds, beet, textiles, cement, oil and sugar refineeries sugar, and carpets produced here. Founded in the 4th century, Kermanshah has long been an important market center by virtue of its position on the caravan route from Hamadan to Baghdad. East of the city are the cliffs that bear the Bisetun inscription, which became the key to deciphering several ancient Middle Eastern writings.

The distance between Kermanshah and Tehran is 525 km. The airport is located in north east of the city, and the distance from Tehran is 413 km by air. Kurdish is the main language in the province with some Arab and Turk minorities.

History

The Province has a rich paleolithic heritage. Many caves with Paleolithic age surveyed or excavated there. Some of these cave sites are located in Bisetun and north of Kermanshah. The first known physical remains of Neanderthal man in Iran discovered in Bisetun cave.Do- Ashkaft, Kobeh, Warwasi, and Mar Tarik are

a Paleolithic sites in the region.Kermanshah also has many Neolithic sites, of which the most famous are Ganj Dareh, Sarab, and Asiab. At Ganj Dareh, the earliest evidence for goat domestications documented. The monuments found in Kermanshah show two glorious periods, the achaemenid and Sassanid eras.

The mythical ruler of the Pishdadian described as founding the city while Tahmores Divband  built it. An alternative narrative is that the construction was by Bahram IV of the Sassanid dynasty during the 4th century CE.

Kermanshah reached a peak during the reign of Hormiz lV and Khosrau I of Sassanids. The city suffered major damage during the Arab invasions but recovered in the Safavid period to make great progress. In 13 AD Mongolian invaders and in 14 AD Timourians plunded and badly damaged the city. Concurrent with the Afghan attack and the fall of Isfahan Kermanshah was almost comletely destroyed by the Ottoman invasion.

During the Iran-Iraq War, the province suffered heavy fighting and most towns cities badly damaged and some like Sar- Pol-e Zahab and Qhasr-e- Shirin destroyed.

 

Local products and snacks:

 Kermanshah’s carpet clends its name to a type of Persian carpet named after the region, coarse carpet, coarse, giveh (cotton summer shoes), felt carpet, klash (highest quality giveh) and leather.

 Kermanshah is also famous for its sweets made of rice, locally known as Nan berenji, and globally known Roghan-e Kermanshahi (spcciall cooking oil).

 

Historical Attractions:

 

Various attractions exist that date from the pre-Islamic era, such as the Kohneh Bridge, to contemporary parks and museums. Some of the more popular sites are:

Tombs of Abo Dabajeh, Baba Yadegar in West Islam Abad, bridges of Khosravi, and Miyan Rahan, castles of Lahjir,Laye Bozehro, and Lamarvan, hills of Ghorbagheh(frog ),

Ahangaran are in city of Sahneh. Dokan Davood (Urartu era.), images of Anobanini –

2800 B.C, in Sar-e- Pol-e Zohab, Sassanid Places of Khosro Parviz, and Hush koriyeh- Sassanid era, Tagh-e Bostan (Sassanid era.) in city of Ghasr-e Shirin. Old Bazaar in Kermanshah.Ancient hills of joda, Sholmaran, Govin, Rostam Abad, castle of Sary Aslan, bathhouses of Haji Asghar Khan, Hassan Khan and Brick Bridge in city of Kangavar.

Darius the Great’s inscription at Bisotun, which dates to 522 BCE, lies some 1300 meters high in the mountains, and counts as one of the most famous sites in Near Easternarcheology. The site is a UNESCO world Heritage Site, and has been attracting visitors for centuries. The Bisetun inscription is to Old Persian cuneiform  what the Rosetta stone is to Egyptian hieroglyphs, the trilingual inscription (in Old Persian, Elamite and Akkadian), he relief above the inscription depicts Darius facing nine rebels who objected to his crowning. At the king's feet lies Gaumata. The location of this important historical document is not coincidental: Gaumata, a usurper who depicted as lying at Darius' feet, was a Medean and in Achaemenid times, Bisotun lay on the Medea-Parsa highway.

 

 

 

        Hellenistic-era depiction of Bahram as Hercules.

Bisetun is also notable for three reliefs at the foot of the hill that date from the Parthian era. Among them is a Hellenistic-era depiction of the divinity Bahram as the Greek hero Hercules, who reclines with a goblet in his hand, a club at his feet and a lion-skin beneath him. Because it lies on the route of an ancient highway, this life-size rock sculpture may reflect Bahram's status as patron divinity of travelers.

Taq-e- Bostan:

Taq-e-Bostan, the rock reliefs at Taq-e Bostan lie four miles northeast of Kermanshah, where a spring gushes from a mountain cliff and empties into a large reflecting pool. One of the more impressive reliefs, inside the largest grotto (Ivan), is the oversized depiction of Sassanid king Khosrau II (591-628 CE), who appears mounted on his favorite charger, Shabdiz. Both horse and rider arrayed in full battle armor.

There are two hunting scenes on complementary sides of the Ivan: one depicts an imperial boar hunt and the other depicting the king stalking deer. Elephants flush out the boar from a marshy lake for the king who stands poised with bow and arrow in hand while he surrounded by female musicians following in other boats. These royal hunting scenes are narrative murals in stone are count among the most vivid of all Iranian rock reliefs.                                                             

      

 

Religiouse Attractions:

     Jam-e Mosque of Paveh, holy shines of Peer Katan, Dadeh Bektar, Mahmoud, Seyed Ibrahim, Seyed Jalalaldin, old mosques of Dowlatshah, Shahzadeh,

Emad-Al-doleh, and Fayz Abad are in Kermanshah. Mosques of Imamzadeh and Jam-e are in city of Kangavar.

        

 

Natural Attractions:

Sightseeing of Rejub is in city of West Islam Abad, amazing Qouri Qaleh cave, Sarab    Ravansar’s picnic area in Javanrood. Hot springs of Tang Hammum In Gasr-e Shirin, natural

 and beautiful park of Sarab, caves of Kabotar (pigeon ), Haji, and Seyed Shahab in city   

 of Sahneh are Kermanshah Provice natural attractions.

 Qouri Qaleh cave is 3,140 meters long and has been recognized as the Longest Assian

        Cave-ith a flowing stream. The cave is surrounded by forests and inside the cave beautiful stalactites and Stalagmites created eye- catching scenes. 

 

Kohkiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province:  Done  11     

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Kohkilūyé and Boyer-Ahmad is one of the 30 provinces of Iran. It is in the south-west of the country, the province divided into four counties include Boyer-Ahmad, Kohkiluyeh, Gachsaran, and Yasuj as its capital. The province was once part of Fars Province. The Province managed by local tribes during the Islamic era. However, Safavid’s Emperor took the possession of the region and control of the state. The province has 132     registered landmarks of cultural value and significances.

Climate

The mountain range of Dena, with more than 20 elevations and over 4000 meters high above the sea level, is, in fact, the great Himalayas in miniature. The mountain range, which is located in Kohkiluyeh and Boyer Ahmad Province, has mild to cold climate to the north (Kohkiluyeh region), hot and dry. State covered with oak forests. Natural springs, singing of the birds and fresh air fascinate all lovers of nature.

The province is mostly mountainous in terrain, part of the Zagros range. The highest point is the Dena summit with a height of 4,409 meters.

Local Products:

Carpet, coarse carpet, pilecarpet (made of wool or yarn), Ja Namazi,

(A cloth cover for the praying seal of the Moslems), silicula, cushion, needlework,

gloves, etc. are famous local hand crafts of province of Kohkiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad

Historical attractions:

Khosravi Hill- Achaemenian era, Martyrs Hills-third millinium B.C era, ancient hill of Gerd, bridge of Pataveh, and cemetery of Pay-e Chol are in Yasuj.

Old city of Dehdasht, castles of Chel Gach and Mangasht in Kohkiluyeh. The ancient region of Khayr Abad (Sassanid era.), Suliman Corral, and bridge of Khair Abad are in Gachsaran.

Religious Sites:

Holy shrines of Imamzadeh Hassan, Ghasem, Pahlevan and Abdollah are in Yasuj, Mausoleum of Imamzadeh Cheleh Khan, and Seyed Muhammad in Kuhkiluyeh and holy shrines of Bibi- Hakimeh in Gachsaran.

Natural attractions:

Urumiyeh and Murzelay-e Lakes, Mountains of Flowers(Kouhe Gol) ponds of Baram Shir, Margon, Yasuj, natural srings of Mishe, Kharklon, Babakan, valleys and canyons of Bahrum- Baygi, Sepidar, Babakan, Sadat, lava, and Segaveh in Yasuj.

Barm Alon pond, natural springs of Belghis Charam, Chozak, Canyons of Baram Shir,

Dalan, Jokar, Boz-e Sabz, Dom Abbas, and Mahtab are in Kohkiluyeh. Konj Benar Fall  

Are famous natural sites in state of Kohkiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad.

 

Golestān Province                             Done 12

Golestan is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran and located in the northeast of the country south of the Caspian Sea and splited from The Mazandaran Province in 1998. Its capital is Gorgan.  The Province divided into eleven counties; include Azad Shahr, Bandar-e Torkaman, Bandar-e Gaz, Ramian, Ali Abad, Kurd Koy, Gorgan, Gonbad Kavoos, Mino Dasht Agh Ghala, and Kalaleh.

Climate

       Golestan has a moderate and humid climate known as “the moderate Caspian climate”. The effective factors behind such a climate are Alborz mountain range; the direction of mountains faces northeast and gradually decreases in height, in the eastern Alborz section, the highest point of the province is Shavar, at 3,945m in elevation, also direction of winds, neighborhood to the sea, vegetation, local winds, altitude, and weather front. As a result, of the above factors, three different climates exist in the region: plain moderate, mountainous and semi-arid climate.

  History

       With the onset of the Bronze Age in early 3000 BC, Aryan tribes settled in the

       northern Iranian plateau, bringing with them a new culture, as reflected with the

        use of grey clay in pottery. Pieces from this period found in Yanik Hill, Hesâr (Dâmâqân), and Torang Hill (Gorgân). Excavations in 1932 revealed five  distinct layers, the earliest dating back to the 6th millennium BC and  the latest to the  630-1050 A.D. From mid-2000 BC, Aryan culture spread to other parts of the Iranian plateau. Aryan art is characterised by plain designs on pottery, relief and the combination of sculpture with pottery. The more important items of pottery and figures, founded in Torang Hill, are now on display at the National Museum of Iran in Tehrân. Torang Hill is 22 km south eastern Gorgân By the 1st century AD, Astrabad had become a well-established stop on the famous Silk Road from China to the Mediterranean important city of Persia, Gorgan during the Islamic era flourished as a commercial and intellectual center. Gorgan during the course of history frequently suffered raids by rival enemies and renegate Mongolians, Turkic tribesmen resulting insecurity contributed to the economic decline of Ashtarabad. Gorgan during the Qajar era became important and received special attention for city development due to the life style of the Qajar families.

     Gorgan province today

   Today the state is flourishing again. Gorgan is the center of an intensively cultivated

         farming region whose major commercial crops are wheat, cotton, and fruits. The Turkmen minorities reside in the north of the province, particularly in the cities of Gonbad and Bandar-e Turkaman and Other minority communities such as Baluchs, Turks, Afghans, and Armenians reside in this area, and preserved their traditions and rituals.

   The city's and state’s major industries include food processing, cotton ginning, soap manufacturing, and carpet weaving, silk, felt carpet, rugs, cusion, scarf (made by Turkamans), coarse, and other hand made products.

 

 

       Historical Attractions:

          Royal place of Gorgan, hills of Saad-abad, Mahz Abad, Chabuki, Yass, Nargess, Gomsh

          Tapeh and Khandan, birdge of Agh Ghola, castles of Marun- Ashkanid era and old bazaars are in Gorgan. Castles of Kamz, Cobra, Tapeh, Sultan Ali and the world’s tallest brick tower of Gonbad-e Qabus built by Al-e Zeyar in eleven century AD in city of Gonbad-e Kavoos hills of Nezam Abad in Ali Abad, tower of west Radekan in Kurd Koy are important historical attractions in Golestan Province.

         

 

 

Religious Attractions:

Jam-e Mosque and shrine of Imamzadeh Rushan are in Gorgan. Karim Mosque and shrine of Imamzadeh Jafar are in Mino Dasht, Aramgah (resting place) of Yahya Ebn-e Zayd in Gonbad Kavoos. Holy places of Agh Imam, footsteps of Bahaald are in Nagshbandy city of Bandar-e Turkaman. Mosques of Jam-e and Kabir, shrines of Imamzadeh Majid and Ibrahim in Kurd Koy are important religious Attractions in Gorgan Province.

Natural Attractions

Gorgan Province is one of the Beautiful places in Iran, famous natural attractions are:

Gulf of Gorgan wich is the biggest gulf in Caspian Sea, ponds of Gamishan, Alagol,

Ajigol, and beautiful forests of Nahar Khoran, National Park of Gorgan, forests of Garma Ba-dasht Garn Abad in Gorgan. Ludeh Fall, hot spring of Du Zin, Mirza Boblu Museum of Wild life in Mino Dasht. Shir Abad Fall, natural pool of Ramian and Deland Forest Park are in Gonbad-e Kavoos. Forest of Kabud Wal, Zarin Gol, villages of Afratakhteh, and Alestan are in Haydar Abad.

 

Gilan Province:                                    Done 13

Gīlān is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran and Located in north of Iran lies along the Caspian Sea. The center of the province is the city of Rasht. Gilan Province is divided into 16 counties include Astara, Astaneh-e Ashrafiyeh, Amlash, Bandar-e Anzali, Rasht, Rezvanshahr, Roodbar, Roodsar, Siyahkal, Shaft, Somieh Sara,Talesh, Fuman, Lahijan, Langehrood, and Masal.

Gilan's position in between theTehran- Baku trade route has established the cities of Port of (Bandar-e) Anzali and Rasht as ranking amongst the most important fishing, and commercial centers in Iran. As a result, the merchant and middle-classes comprise a significant percentage of the population.

 

Climate

Gilan has a humid temperate climate with plenty of annual rainfall. The Alborz range provides further diversity to the land in addition to the Caspian coasts.

Large parts of the province are mountainous, green and forested. The coastal plain along the Caspian Sea is similar to that of Mazandaran.

History

Rasht first mentioned in historical documents in 682 CE, but it is certainly older than this.

The first recorded encounter between Gilak and Deylamite warlords and invading Arabs armies was in the battle of Jalula in 647 AD. Arabs never managed to conquer Gilan. Gilaks and Deylamites successfully repulsed any Arab attempt to occupy their land. Gilan Province has seen theTurkish invasions of 10th and 11th centuries, Mongols invaders that plundered the city in 13th century and Armies of Russians and British.

Gilan was a major producer of silk beginning in 15th century. As a result, it was one of the wealthiest provinces in Iran. Silk trade, though not the production, and the single most important source of trade revenue for the as early as 16th century and until mid

In mid 19th century, a widespread fatal epidemic in silk worms paralized Gilan's economy, causing widespread economic distress. Gilan's budding industrialists and merchants were increasingly dissatisfied with the weak and ineffective rule of Qajars. Reoreintation of Gilan's agriculture and industry from silk to production of rice and introduction of tea plantations where a partial answer to decline of silk in the province.

 Qajars established a central government in late 18th century, and lost a series of wars to Russia 1804-1813 and 1826-28), resulting in enormous gain of influence by the Russian empire in the Caspian Sea region and Gilanian’s cities of Rasht and Anzali occupied by the Russian forces. Anzali served as the main trading port between Iran and Europe.

Gilanis had played an important role in the Constitutional Revolution of Iran. Sepahdar Tonekaboni (Rashti) was a prominent figure in the early years of the revolution and was instrumental in defeating Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar. In later years (late 1910s), many Gilakis gathered under the leadership of Mirza Kouchak Khan Jangali.

Mirza Kochak Kahn became the most prominent revolutionary leader in northern Iran at this period. His movement, known as the Jangalis (Foresters Movement), had sent an armed brigade toTehran, which helped depose the Qajar ruler Mohammad Ali Shah. However, the revolution did not progress the way the constitutionalists had strived for, and Iran came to face much internal unrest and foreign intervention, particularly from the British, and Russian Empires. Gilan's contribution to the movement of Mirza Kouchak Khan Jangali known as the (Constitutionalist movement of Gilan), is glorified in Iranian history and effectively secured Gilan and Mazandaran against foreign invasions.

 

 

Tourism, People and Food

The province has an annual average of 8 million tourists, mostly domestic. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 211 sites of historical and cultural significance in the province. You should drive to Masuleh, the landscape is very nice and it is the main tourist attraction in Gilan. Masuleh is a small town southeast of Rasht. The town built similar lto the Pueblo settlements, with the roof of one house being the courtyard of the next house above.

Gilan has a strong culinary tradition, from which several dishes have adopted across Iran. This richness derives in part from the climate, which allows for a wide variety of fruit, vegetables and nuts grown in the province. Seafood is a particularly strong component of Gilani or Mazandarani cuisine. Fish often smoked or served, as Kabab, and caviar are delicacies along the whole Caspian littoral. Other types of fish such as Mahi Sefid, Kuli, Kulmeh, Zarde Par (golden fish), Mahi Kapur and many others consumed. Fish roe or ashpal is widely used in Gileki cuisine. Traditional Persian stew such as ghalieh mahi (fish stew) is also featured and prepared in a uniquely Gilani fashion.

More specific to Gilan and Mazandaran are a distinctive walnut- paste  and Pomegranate-juice and sauce, used as a marinade for kabab (Kabab Torsh) and as the basis of fesenjan, a rich stew of duck, chicken or lamb. Mirza ghasemi is an aubergine and egg dish with a smoky taste that often served as a side dish or appetizer. Other such dishes include pickled garlic, olives with walnut paste, and smoked fish. The Caviar and smoked fish from the region are, in particular, widely prized and sought after specialities in both domestic and foreign gourmet markets. Gilan is well and interesting for tourism.

 

Local Crafts:

Hand woven textiles, carpets, jajim, earthenware, bamboo products, baskets; mat, silk, coarse carpet, designed jewelries and wooden products are among the unique representatives of fine crafts in Rash province.

 

Histrical attractions:

Castle of lamir is in city of Astara. Miyan Poshteh Palace, bridges of Ghazian and Miyan Poshteh, Tower Clock and old Customhouse in Port of Anzali. Aramgah of Mirza Kouchak Khan, Shahid Beheshti School, old houses of Haj Mirza Ahmad Abrishami, bridge of Morghaneh Pord in city of Rasht.Tower of Gaskar, Pole Kheshty, Bathhouse of Kasma in Somieh Sara. Castle of Salsal, mansions of Sardar Amjad are in Talesh. Reza Shah’s Palace, castle of Band Bon, brick bridge of Tamijan, and Shahrdari (municipality)Square in Roodsar City, Pole Ajori ( brick bridge), and old houses of Monajem Bashi, Darya Baygi, Rais Zadeh, and Mohebi in Langarud are famous places in province of Gilan.

Religiouse Attractions: 

Holy shrines of Imamzadeh Ibrahim and Ghasem are in city of Astara, holy shrine of Imamzadeh Saleh and Be Be Horeyeh in Anzali. Tombs of Agha Seyed Abbas, Seyed Esmail, and Imamzadeh Hashem are in city of Rasht. Holy shrines of ImamzadehTayeb, Taher, Peer Mousa, are in Roodbar. Tombs of Agha Seyed Ahmad, Agha Seyed Haydar, Agha Seyed Hussein, Seyed Mortaza, and Seyed Ibrahim in Roodsar.Tombs of Agha Seyed Ibrahim, Agha Seyed Abdollah, in Somieh Sara. White Mosque is in Talesh. Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Es-hagh is in Shaft. Mosques of Jam-e and Akbareyeh in Lahijan are important religiouse attractions of Gilan provice.

       Natural Attraction:

Pond of Port Anzali, salty springs of Ab Shor in Lakan, Cheshmagol Seh Shanbeh, in Rasht. Mineral springs of Sang- Rood, hot springs of Mastkhor, in Roodbar. Spings of Sajiran, mineral springs of Zamzameh, Ali Zakhoni, in Foman and ponds of Amir Kelaye in Lahijan. Spring of Damkesh in village of Oshian in city of Chaboksar (every 20 minutes the level of the water raises up to 80 cms for 5 minutes and stops scientific studies have not found the reason for these phenomena).

 

 

 

Lurestān Province:                                      Done 14

Lurestan Province is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, historic territory of western Iran,

Province has nine counties include Azna, Aligudarz, Borujerd, Pol-e- Dokhtar, Delfun, Dorud, Selseleh, Kouhdasht and Khoram Abad as its capital.

  The population of Lurestan is calculated 1, 739,644 people in 2006 census. Lurestān is one of the oldest regions of Iran. In the third and fourth millennium, B.C. migrant tribes settled down in the area of the Zagros Mountains.

Lurestān successfully integrated into the Achaemenid, Parthian and Sassanian empires. Parts of Lurestān managed to stay independent during the Arab, Seljuk and Mongol invasions. Lurs were amongst the original Qizilbash that aided in the founding and administration of the Safavid dynasty. During the invation of Mongoliase this region divided into two region of Great Lur (Kohkiluyeh and Bakhtiary) and Small Lur

(Posht kouh and Pishkouh). Lurestan in 19 century divided into 2 regions of Poshtkouh and Pishkouh (Lurestan and Ilam).

 

       Climate

The terrain consists chiefly of mountains, with numerous ranges, part of the Zagros chain, running northwest to southeast. The central range has many summits that almost reach the line of perpetual snow, rising to 13,000 feet and more, and it feeds the headwaters of Iran's most important rivers, such as the Zayandeh rood, Jarahi, Karun, Dix, Abi, Karkheh. Between the higher ranges lie many fertile plains and low hilly, well-watered districts.

The climate is generally sub-humid continental with winter precipitation, a lot of snow Because, it lies on the westernmost slopes of the Zagros Mountains, annual precipitation in Lurestān is among the highest anywhere in Iran south of the Alborz Mountains.

In Khorramabad, the average annual precipitation totals 21 inches of rainfall. The months June to September are dry, but Khorram Abad can expect 4 inches of rainfall equivalent in December and January.

Local Crafts

Carpet, coarse carpet, coarse, dishes, shawls, wooden chessboard, crochet article and Janamaz (used by Muslims during prayers).

 

Historical Attractions:

Lurestān has 263 sites of historical and cultural significance according to Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization.

Castle of Maseleh and ancient hill of Masir Seylan are in Aligodarz, abanbar (water storage), Do dungeh, Old Bazaar, and house of Sultani in Brojerd. Ancient castles of Majin, Korgon, hills of Tajan, Kozehgaran, Kal Yazid, bridges of Kalhur and Kro Dukhtar in Pol-e- Dokhtar. Castles of Falak-ol Aflak, Rake, Zaghe, Doshe, Gomro, Mangare, Manijeh, Sar Ghala, Razeh, Bahram, Nasir, Cheshmak, Shapouri Birdge, ancient hills of Kargoneh, Tanoorban, Sarab Nav-kesh, Reki, Chaghabul, Zagheh, old bazaar of Mirza Seyed Reza, old mills of Baba Abbas, Divar-e Sang-e, old tower in Khorram Abad. Ancient hills of Delfun, Pole Kaka Reza, in Selseleh, castles of Koh Zad, Zolal Angiz, Chegh, Changary, bridges of Keshkarood, Kro Doukhtar, Sassani, Gavmishan, Cham Namsht, hills of Chagha Sabz, Kaftarlo, Darakeh, dome (gonbad)of Aali Gij, and Kouh Dasht bridge in Kouh Dasht are the most famous historical attractions in Lurestan province.

 

Religious Attractions:

Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Ghasem is in Azna. Mosques of Jam-e, and Sultani, holy shrines of Imamzadeh Jafar (Ilkhanid era.), Vilian, and Two Sisters are in Borujerd. Mausoleums of Prince Muhammad, Mehdi, Saleh, are in Pol-e Dukhtar. Resting place of Prince Abdollah and two Brothers are in Khorram Abad.

 

Natural Attractions:

Ab Sefid Fall is in Aligodarz. Natural Wild Life Habitant, Oshtoran Kouh Mountain, beautiful pond of Borujerd, beautiful pond of Pol-e Dukhtar,Kiyou Lake, water falls of Tafa, Afrineh, Springs of Gerdab Sangi and Ab Zibay-e Golestan in Khorram Abad. Lake Gahar, Bisheh Water fall, and Taleh Zang in Dorood. Caves of Hamyan, Yek o Do, Viznahar Dosh-e Botkhaneh, Mirmalas in Kouhdasht.

 

Māzandarān Province:                                Done 15

 

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Mazandaran is a Caspian province in the north of Iran, located on the Southern coast of the Caspian Sea and one of the most populous provinces by population density and is one of the wealthiest regarding diverse Natural Resources. The center of the province is city of Sari.Province is consist of 16 counties include, Amol, Babol, Babolsar, Behshahr, Tonekabun, Joybar, Chaloos, Ramsar, Savadkouh, Qaemshahr, Mahmoud Abad, Neka, Noor, Nowshahr, Galogah and Sari.

Recent excavations in Goher Tappeh, which gives evidence to the existence of urbanization phase of civilization for more than five millennium years. Mazandaran province is one of the most important historical sites of Iran and was part of the ancient kingdom of Hyrcania and former Kingdom of Tapuria. Indigenous people of the region are ethnic Mazandaranis (Tapurians), people who speak Mazandarani, language that most resembles Gilaki and Sangaseri.

Mazandaran Provine known for its rich history and diverse climate ranges from the sandy beaches to the rugged and Snowcapped Alborz Mountains with the highest peak throughout The Middle East and Western Asia, Mount Damavand. Its diverse geography is not limited to mountains and beaches, but also includes plains, prairies, forests and jungles between Caspian Sea and Alborz Sierra.

Mazandaran province geographically divided into two parts: the coastal plains, and the mountainous areas. The Alborz Mountain Range surrounds the coastal strip and plains of the Caspian Sea like a huge barrier.

There is often snowfall during most of the seasons in the Alborz regions, which run parallel to the Caspian Sea’s southern coast. The province enjoys a moderate, semitropical climate with an average temperature of 25 °C in summer and about 8 °C in winter.

 

 

Economy

Economy of Mazandaran Province relies heavily on Agriculture and dish productions, with the highest farm fish production throughout Iran and the neighbor regions,rice, grain, fruits, cotton, tea, tobacco and silk are produced in the lowland strip along the Caspian shore.Oil wealth has stimulated industries in food processing, cement, textiles and fishing ( caviar ).

 Tourism; the province has an annual average of 12 million tourists, mostly domestic.

History

The province populated from early antiquity, and Mazandaran has changed hands among various dynasties from early in its history. Under the Achaemenids, administered as a sub-province of Parthia and has not named separately in the provincial lists of Darius and Xerxes. There are several fortresses remaining from Parthian and Sassand times, and many older cemeteries scattered throughout the province. During this era, Mazandaran was part of Hyrcania Province, which was one of important provinces.

With the advent of the Sassanid dynasty, the King of Mazandaran (Tabaristan and Padashkhwargar) was Gushnasp, whose ancestors had reigned in the area (under the Parthian empire) since the time of Alexandar. In 529-536, Mazandarn ruled by Sassanid prince Kawus son of Kawadh. Anushirawan, the Sassanid king, put in his place Zarmihr, who claimed his ancestry from the legendary blacksmith Kaveh. This dynasty ruled until 645 A.D., when Gil Gawbara (a descendant of the Sassanid king Jamasp and a son of Piruz) joined Mazandaran to Gilan, these families had descendants who ruled during the Islamic period. During Savavid era, (1501-1732)

This region became under control of central government and one of the Iran’s province.

 

Tourism, People and Food

Suitable environmental conditions, pleasant and moderate climate, beautiful natural landscapes, and proximity toTehran, have led the province to be one of the main recreational place with hotels, restaurants and other facilities to host millions of tourists a year enjoy visiting it mostly domestic. Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists close to 630 sites of historical and cultural significance.

The cuisine of the province is very rich in seafood due to the Caspian Sea, and rice is present in virtually every meal. Indeed, the rest of Iran introduced to rice through Gilan and Mazandaran. Before the 1800s, Persians, used bread rather than rice as an accompaniment to their meals, today rice is is very popular among Persians especially in Gilan and Mazandaran, rice remains the choice staple of the indigenous inhabitants.

Mazandaran like Gilan has a strong culinary tradition, from which several dishes have adopted across Iran. This richness derives in part from the climate, which allows for a wide variety of fruit, vegetables and nuts grown in the province. Seafood is a particularly strong component of Mazandarani or Gilani cuisine. Sturgeon often smoked or served, as Kabab, and caviar are delicacies along the whole Caspian littoral. Other types of fish such as Mahi Sefid, Kuli, Kulmeh, Caspian Salmon, Mahi Kapur and many others consumed fish roe or ashpal is widely used. Traditional Persian stews such as ghalieh mahi (fish stew) is also featured and prepared in a uniquely Mazandarani or Gilani fashion.

The caviar and smoked fish from the region are, in particular, widely prized and sought after specialities in both domestic and foreign gourmet markets. Mazandaran has one of the most beautiful landcape in the word where the land, mountains, and forests reach the sea. Tourists call it paradise on earth.

 

Local Crafts

Carpet, fine silk, pileless carpet, coarse, mat, clay dishes, dishes, wooden statue, felt carpet. Local crafts of Mazandaran province are among the unique representatives of fine crafts.  

Historical Attractions:

Castle of Shahandasht, Ashraf bathhouse, birdge of twelve stairs (12 peleh), and old bazaar are in city of Amol, building of Salman, Mansion of old bazaar, in Babol. Old bridge of Babolsar. Palace and garden of Safavi (Bagh-e Shah) in Behshahr, castle of Kangalo, tower of Lajim in Savad Kouh, collection of Safaviyeh (Persian Emperors) in Farah Abad, Ab Anbar( water storage) of Mirza Mehdi, in Sari, mansions of AJabat and Chi Khoran in city of Nowshahr, mansion of Timshan, casle of Baldeh in Noor. Beautiful Hotel Ramsar and its garden witch have the view of The Caspian Sea and Forests of Mount Alborz.

Religious Attractions and Sites:

Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Ghasem is in Babol, Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Abdolhagh in Savadkouh. Holy shrines of Imamzadeh Abbas, Yahya, and Ghasem are in Sari. Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Yusef Reza in Ghaem Shahr.Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Abdollah in Nekah.Mausoleum of Agha Shah Balo Zahed in Noor are the important religious attractions in Mazandaran Provice.

 

Natural Attactions:

Hot spings of Ab Ahan, Ab Ask, and Reneh, water falls of Shahandash, Gheysareh, and Parvand are in Amol. Coastal regions of Babolsar, Ramsar, forests of Ton-e Kabun, Savad Kouh, ponds of Sarandun, Balandun, and water fall of Darab Kla, and wild life habitant of Dasht-e Naz in Sari. Lake of Golpa, in Ghaem Shahr, ponds of lapo, Palangun (leopards) in Nekah, lakes of Valasht, Khezr-e Nabi, water falls of Aka pol, Harijan, Namak Abroud, forests park of Chalos, Forests park of Seasangan in Nowshahr. Waterfall of Sava-Sareh in city of Noor. Forest park of Abbas Abad and Miyankaleh pond are in city of Behshahr. Water falls of Azark, Char- dar, Rish Beraz valleys and canyons of Jannat in Ramsar are the most beautiful sites in Mazandaran Province.

 

 

Yazd Province:                                        Done 16

Yazd Province is one of the 30 provinces and fourth largest province in Iran. It is in the center of the country and its provincial capital is Yazd. The province has ten Counties: Abarkouh, Ardakan, Bafg, Taft, Sadogh, Mehreez, Meybod, Khatam, Tabas and Yazd. In 2006, Yazd Province had an estimated population of 1,033,291.

Climate

Being located beside the central mountains, far from the sea, adjacent to the Dasht-e Kavir Desert Yazd has a climate that mostly resembles dry desert climate. Little rain along with high water evaporation, relatively low dampness heat and great temperature changes are among the factors making this province, one of the driest parts of Iran, with the exception of mountainous region of Shir-Kouh with mild temperature.

City of Yazd

Yazd is the capital of Yazd Province, "the second ancient and historic city in the world" and a centre of Zoroastrian culture.The word Yazd means feast and worship.

The population of Yazd is predominantly Persian, most of who are Shia Muslims with a small Zoroastrian community.

The city of Yazd’s first mention in historic records predate it back to around 3000 years B.C. when it was related to by the name of Ysatis, and was then part of the domain of Medes, ancient empire of Iran. Excavations of Gharbal Biz remaining from the Achaemenid period are another example of the antiquity of Yazd.

The present city name perhaps came fromYazdegerd l, a Sassanid ruler and the

city was definitely a Zoroastrian centre during Sassanid times.

In the course of history due to its distance from important capitals and its harsh natural surrounding, and difficulty of approach, Yazd remained immune to large battles and the destruction and ravages from wars; therefore, it kept many of its traditions. During the invasion of Genghis Khan in the early 13th century, Yazd became a safehaven for many artists, intellectuals, scientists and those fleeing their war-ravaged cities across Persia. Yazd briefly served as the capital of the Muzaffarid Dynasty in the 14th century, and sieged unsuccessfully in 1350–1351 by the Injuids under Shaikh Abu Ishaq.

Zoroastrians have traditionally been populous in Yazd. Even now, Yazd’s heritage as a centre of Zoroastrianism is also important. There is a Tower of Silence on the outskirts, and the city itself has a Fire Temple, which holds a fire kept alight continuously since 470 AD.

ancient religion, and though of their Atashkadeh (Fire Temple) turned into a mosque after the Islamic Conquest of Persia, but, the city remained Zoroastrian even after the conquest by paying a levy, and only gradually did Islam come to be the dominant religion in the city.

Yazd visited by Marco Polo in 1272, described it as a good and noble city and remarked its silk production industry, and the vibrancy of Yard often comes as a surprise.

For a brief period, Yazd was the capital of Atabakan and Mozaffarid Dynasties. Yazd retains elements of its old religion, traditions, and architecture, recognized by UNESCO for its architectural heritage. Yazd is an architecturally unique city and also known for the high quality handicrafts, especially silk weaving, and its sweet shops.

The Jam-e  Mosque of Yazd crowned by a pair of minarets, the highest in Persia, the portal's facade decorated from top to bottom in dazzling tile work; predominantly blue in colour.The city of Yazd has resisted the modern urbanization changes and has so far maintained its traditional structure. The geographical features of this region have prompted residents to develop special architectural styles, in older part of the city; most houses built of adobe and have domed roofs (gonbad). These materials serve as an excellent insulation preventing heat from passing through. The existence of special ventilation structures, called badgirs is a distinctive feature of the architecture of this city (a badgir is a high structure on the roof under which, in the interior of the building, there is a small pool).

 

Yazd today

Always known for the quality of its silk and carpets, Yazd today is one of Iran's industrial centers for textiles. There is also a considerable ceramics and construction materials industry and unique confectionery and jewelry industries. A significant portion of the population also employed in other industries including agriculture, dairy, metal works and machine manufacturing. There are a number of companies involved in the growing information technology industry, mainly manufacturing primary materials such as cables and connectors. Currently Yazd is the home of the largest manufacturer of fibre optics in Iran.

Baghlava, ghotab and pashmak are the most popular sweets made in the city.

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The Great Jame Mosque

The Great Jam-e Mosque is the most a glorious and masterpiece of architectural design. Jam-e Mosque of Yazd crowned by a pair of minarets, the highest in Persia, the portal's facade decorated from top to bottom in dazzling tile work, predominantly blue in color, with beautiful gatch (plaster) work, large praying area and largely designed place for nocturnal prayers or sleepers at night. The mosque was build more than one thousand years ago and library of Vaziri is located next to mosque. The mosque has treasure and precious collection of hand written holy book of Koran and other written books.

Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorest%C4%81n_Province"

Mosque of Amir Chagmag

Mosque of Amir Chagmag also called new jam-e Mosque of Amir.The mosque is famous for its architectural and work of arts. The mosque was build during the Safavid’s Emperors (A.D. 1501- 1732), with the order and efforts of Amir Jalal Al-Din Chagmag Shami Governor of Yazd, The hallways embellished with beautiful tiles, which grant further beauty to the building and gives stunning and admire feelings to visitors and tourists

 

 

Fire Temple of Varharam (Bahram)

This building erected with efforts of Zoroastrians and the Parsees of India in A.D.1934, the building has a large courtyard with big trees, always green and thriving. The large round pond in entrance of the courtyard, adds to the beauty of the building. It is be believed the fire was brought from Anahita Fire Temple in Fars Province, for this reason it has been given special attention and respect to the site as a holy place to Zoroastrians.

 

Local Crafts:

Kashmir, brocaded silk, velvet, wrapper for bed, pileless carpet, blanket, and sheet

Yazd Province is also famous for its sweets like baghlava, ghotab, pashmak (cotton         candy), zolbia and gosh fil and nuts like pistacho, almond, and walnut.

        Historical Attractions:

Ancient and Important historical attractions in Yazd province are Sageneh and khargooshi inns, caravanserais of Hose- Jafar, Valeh Abad, and old houses are in city of Ardakan. Ali Abad caravanserai, old water storages, old castles of Islamiyeh, Shavaz and old garden of Golshan are in city of Taft. Great tower (Minaret) of Golshan, old citade and mausoleum of Sepahsalar in city of Tabas, castles of Khormirz and Saryazd in Mehriz. Water storage of Hassan Abad, castles of Barjin, Rokn Abad, and Narin are in Maybod. Old houses of Lareyha, Arabs, Rasolian, Hat makers, Malek Al Tojar, and Asadi, old water storages of Seyed, Sahra, six air vent holes(six budgir), Khajeh, Golshan, and Rostam, old schools of Khan, Ziya-eyeh, Abu Al-Mali, Domana, andTop of Form

 Abdulrahim Khan, castles of Ibrahim Abad, Zarach and Aez Abad in Yazd.

 

Religious Attractions

 

Most important religiouse attractions in Yazd Province are:

Old mosques of Zirdeh, Haji Rajab, Zardak, Muhammad Hossein, Kharanegh,

and Jam-e Mosque in Ardakan. Old mosques of Shodeh, Islamiyeh, Bida Khoyed,

Tarazjan, Khan-e ghah (monastery) are in city ofTaft. Holy shrine of Tabas, Mosques of Jam-e and Mehr Padin are in Mehriz, Holy shrines of Khadijeh Khatoon in Maybod.

Jam-e Mosque, Mir Chomag Mollah Ismail, Zaviyeh, Sabat, Four Minaret (mennar),

Mausolem, of Abu Jafar, Seyed Khalil, Twelve Imam, Shah Reza, Seyed Gol Sorkh, Rokn Al- Din,Shams Al- Din and Zoroastrians holy shrines in city of Yazd.

 

Natural Attractions

The most Amazing and beautiful natual attractions in Yazd Province are:

Caves of Hamaneh, Ashkoft, and Abolghasem Rashti are in Ardakan. Caves of Frashah and B’ad Maesom are in Taft. Natural spring of Gharbalabiz, Gardens of Golkar, Akrami and Sarasiab are in Mehriz. Maybod old Glacier, Gardens of Dowlat Abad, Khan, Kolah Farangi, and Moshir are in Yazd.

 

Bushehr Province:                                     Done 17           

Bushehr Province is one of 30 provinces of Iran and located in south west of the country, with 27,653 Square Kilometers and with 60 Kilometers, sea borders on the Persian Gulf in vast plain running along the coastal region. The Province is consisted of seven districts that are Port of Daylam, Port of Genaveh, Tangestan, Dashti, Der, Kangan, and Bandar-e Bushehr the capital of Bushehr Province. 

Bushehr is a major fishing and commercial port; it is one of the chief ports of Iran and is at a distance of 1,218 Kms from Tehran.

Climate

There are two distinguishable season in the province the winter, with moderate to cold starts from November and last to March. The summer is very hot humid and long season; spring and autumn seasons are very hot.

History

During the 1st  And 2nd millennium B.C.E, The peninsula Bushehr  was a Thriving and flourishing seats of civilization called “ Rey Shah “ many relics have been found in this regard related to the Elamite era and the civilization of Shoush (Susa). These structures of “Ray Shahs “are said to be related to Ardeshir of Sassanid Dynasty and “Ray Shahr “was formerly known by the name of Ram Ardeshir. Thereby by the passage of time came to be called Ray Shah and then Bushehr. It is obvious that the Persian Gulf and Province of Bushehr enjoys a remarkable situation with trade and military affair. For this reasons the Europeans were interested to take control of the region and the city of Bushehr.The Portuguese, invaded the city of Bushehr in 1506 C. E and attempted to take the place of Egyptian and the Vinci an traders who were dominant in the

region. Safavid Dynasty in (1501-1732C.E) ended the occupation. In 1734C.E, Nader Shah of Afsharid dynasty chooses it as the site for Iranian Navy base.

During the Zand era, the region was a place for political challenges between different political groups. When Qajar dynasty replaced the Zand Dynasty, British influence increased in The Persian Gulf Region. At the end of the 18TH century, British and Dutch transferred their regional commercial offices to Bushehr and during 19th century, the town was prominent as the home of the British political agent for the Persian Gulf.           

Bushehr today is one of the important ports in Persian Gulf, which has international airport and highways connect the city to Ahvaz to the northwest and Shiraz to the northeast.

Bushehr’s industries include seafood’s canners, firms, etc.

The beautiful coast of Bushher Province is suitable for holiday and relaxation. The nice sea waves, the beautiful fishes moving across the coast and thousands of sea birds fledgling in the blue sky provides marvelous opportunity to spent a pleasant and unforgettable holiday there.

 

Crafts and Arts

Bushehr province offers wide variety of crafts and arts such as carpet, gabeh (along- wefted pile less carpet), galim (coarse carpet), mat, basket, giveh (cotton summer shoes), brume, galyan-e sofali (some kind of pipe made with clay very commonly used in Middle East), clay, and fishing net.

Please do not forget sweets and smoked fish.

Historical Sites in Boshehr Province:

Castles of Hollandaise, Poztidun Temple, ancient cemetery, house of Raes Ali Delvary, ancient region of Ray Shahr, mansions of Darya Bayghi, house of Dashti, and City hall in Bushehr. Castle of Khazar Khan is in Tangestan. Borazjan castle is in Dashtestan. Temple of Kalat is in Dashti. 

 

Religious Attractions

Historical religious attractions in Bushehr province are:

Shrine of Imamzadeh Mir Muhammad-e Hanafi, mosque of Sheikh Saedun, and holy Church of Jesses Christ are in Bushehr. Mosque of Bardastan and holy shrine of Imanzadeh Mir Eram are in Dashti. Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Shah Muhammad in Der and Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Suleiman in Gonaveh

Natural Attractions:

Hot water springs of Ahram, Amir Ahmad Gho-chark in Tangestan, hot mineral waters of Niko and Ganuyeh in Dashti. Hot water spring of Mianlu in Kangan, and pond of Haleh in Gonaveh are the natural attractions in Bushehr Province.

 

Īlām Province:                                                                     Done 18

Īlām is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran. It is in the south-west of the country, bordering Iraq. Its provincial center is the city of Ilam. The cities of the province are Abdanan, Ilam, Aivan, Dareh Shahr, Dehloran, Shirvan, Chardaval and Mehran.

Climate

Ilam province is among the warmer regions of Iran. The mountainous areas of north and northeastern part of Ilam are relatively cold.

Ilam's highest point is the peak Kabir Kouh  at 2790 m, part of the Zagros Mountains.

History

Limited archaeological studies and discoveries indicate 6,000 years of tribal residence in Ilam. Goty trib resided in the region 4000 years B.C.

The Historical evidence indicates that Ilam province was part of the ancient Elamite Empire.

In Elamite and Babylonian inscriptions, Ilam called Alamto or Alam means "mountains" or "the country of sunrise". It was also part of the Achaemenid Empire. Existence of numerous historical vestiges in Lurestan and Ilam provinces belonging to the Sassanid period indicates the specific importance of the region in that time.

In 1930, Ilam became a part of Kermanshah province, only later to become a province by itself. The population of Ilam is consist of Kurds, Lurs and Laks and mostly in farming, and breeding domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, goat and horse. The majority people of Ilam are Shi’a Muslims.

 

Local Crafts:

Ilam province is famous for its local crafts such as wool carpet, felt weaving, silk, and coarse carpet.

Ilam province is also famous for its honey, dried whey, sesame, and variety of sweets, mastic and roghan-e heyvani (special cooking oil).

 

Historical Attractions:

Hezarani Castle is in Abdanan. Ancient hill of Zarneh and fire temple of Zaraneh (Zoroastrian shrines) from the Sassanid era are in Aivan. Castles of Vali, Hassan Abad, Falahati Castle (Qhal’eh), petrograph of Tang Gochali, Sam Castle and Fire temple (late Parthian era), remaining of the

 Sassanid Sarab Kalan is in Shirvan and Chardavel.The remain of the ruined city of   Simareh, ancient hill of Tighan, Cham Namsht Bridge- Sassanid era, bridge of Govmishan in Dareh Shahr. Hill of Mosian and ancient hill of Ali Kosh (nine Thousand yeas old), are in Dehluran. Petrograph of Assyrian and Chahar Taghi (Sassanid era) and Shirin and Farhad Iwan are in Mehran.

 

 

 

Histrical Religiouse Attractions:

Shrine of Seyed Saleh Al-Din Muhammad (Saljuks architectural work) is in Abandan.

 Shrine of Seyed Abdollah and Haji Hazar are in Aivan. Monastery of Seyed Mehdi and shrine of Saheb Alzaman Mosque are in Ilam. Shrines of Abbas, Bagher and Shah Galandar are in Shirvan. Shines of Jaber Ansari, And holy shrines of Imamzadeh Saleh in Dareh Shahr, Shrines of Akbar, Seyed Naser Al-Din and Abbasi in Dehloran are historical religiouse attractions in Ilam province.

 

       Natural Attractions

        Important natural attractions of Ilam Province are:

Se- yah Gov Lake, Garden of Sarab, Anaran Mountain and Kabir Kouh (Great Mountain) in Abdanan. Recreational areas of Khoran Village and Sarab, Calcareous Cave of Kaleh, Hunting grounds of Sharazvel are in Aivan. Forest parks of Tajrian, Sheshdar Dalav, Bakhtiar, Abshar, and Sartaf fall, forest parks of Shahed, Sarab, Kudak and museum of wild life in Ilam. Mar Bareh Fall, Valleys of Kalam Badreh and Kolcani cave in Dareh Shahr. Khofash (bat) cave in Dehloran. Recreational areas of Mehran Dam, river of Kanjan Cham and Zinehgon Cave are in Mehran.  

 

Qom Province:                                                                                    Done 19

Qom Province is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran. It is located in north of the country and its provincial capital is the city of Qom and it is the smallest state in the country.

Climate

Qom province has desert and semi-desert climate with low humidity and scanty rainfall and agriculture is not possible in most of its areas, especially near the salt lake regions. Qom province has two large salt lakes, namely: Howz e Soltan, and Namak Lake.

Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization lists 195 sites of historical and cultural significance in Qom.

 

 

History

Qom thought to have existed in pre-Islamic ages. Archeological discoveries indicate Qom as a residential area from the fifth millennium BCE. According to the pre-Islamic remaining relics and historical texts, Qom was a large city. 'Kom' was the name of the ancient rampart of the city of Qom, It was during the reign of the second calipheh Omar, that the Muslims captured Qom’s center.

In the Seljuki era, the city flourished once more. During the invasion of Mongol, the city witnessed destruction.

During the reign of the Safavids, Qom gained special attention and gradually developed.

In the late 14th century, the city came under the plunder of Tamer Lang when the inhabitants massacred again.

Qom considered holy city in Shi’a Islam, as it is the site of the holy shrine of Hazrat-e Fatema Mae’sume, sister of Imam Hazrat-e Ali Ebn-e Musa Riza (789-816 AD.). The city is the largest center for Shi'a scholarship in the world, and is a significant destination of pilgrimage

Today, Qom is one of the Holiest and focal centers of the Shi'a both in Iran and around the globe. Its theological center and the Holy Shrine of Hazrat-e Ma'sumeh are prominent features of the provincial capital of Qom province.

Local crafts and souvenirs

The most artistics of these handcrafts are carpet, silk carpet, rug, desiged ceramics, decorative article, and porcelain.

Qom has an especial type of sweets known as Sohan (made of flour and honey). 

 

Historical attractions:

Old houses of Hazrat-e Imam Khomeini, Haji Goli Khan, Mullah Sadra, caravansarais of Tolab, Ghalae Sangi, Atabaki, Bagher-Abad, Dalak Bridges, Pa-Sangan, Old Bazaar, Domes of Fatah-Ali Shah, Muhammad Shah, Mahd-e Olya, Shah Abbas The Second,

Shah Suleiman, Shah Safe and ancient region of Gharah Tapeh( black hills), Green Domes and  ancient hill of Gholi Darvish.

Mosques and other holy shrines:

Mosques of Saheb-Al Zaman, Imam Hassan-e Mojtaba and Jam-e, holy shrines of Hazrat-e Ma’soomeh, Imamzadeh Esmail, Mousa, Mabar Gha, Shah Hamzeh, Khadij-e Khaton, Prince Ibrahim, six Imamzadeh and prince Zakaria are the most famous ones in Qom.

Natural Attractions

Most natural attractions in Qom Province are:

Salt Lakes, Hoz Sultan, five hundred years old cypress tree in village of Gargabi, nation park of Kavir. 

 

Qazvin Province:                                                     Done 20

Qazvin is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran. The Province of Qazvin is located in North West of the country and Qazvin as its capital. The Province divided to four townships includes Booin Zahra, Takestan, Qazvin and Abyek.

The climate of the province in the northern parts is cold, snowy in winters, and very hot in summers, the southern parts are mild with comparatively cold winters and warm summers.

History of Province

Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal the existence of urban agricultural settlements as far back as 7000BC. The name “Qazvin” or “Kasbin” derived from CAS, an ancient tribe that lived south of the Caspian Sea millennia ago. Qazvin in fact derives its name from the same origin.

Qazvin has been a hotbed of historical developments in Iranian history. In the early years of the Islamic era, Qazvin served as a base for the Arab forces. Destroyed by Genghis Khan (13th century), the Safavid monarchs made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid Empire in 1548 and in 1598, Shah Abbas Safavi have it moved to Isfahan. During the Qajar Dynasty and contemporary period, Qazvin has always been one of the most important governmental centers due to its proximity to Tehran.

The city of Qazvin has contained over 2,000 architectural and archeological sites and has been an important cultural center throughout history.

The city today which  known as Qazvin founded by Shapur ll, King of Persia in 250 CE, when he built a fortification there to control the regional tensions.

Qazvin has sometimes been of central importance at important moments of Iranian history. Captured by invading Arabs (644 AD) and destroyed by Genghis Khan 13th century, the Safavid monarchs made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid Empire in 1548 moved to Isfahan in 1598

Bombed and occupied by Russian forces in both World Wars.

Today Qazvin Province has different industries and is agricultural producer of grape, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, walnut, olive, apple, wheat, barley, sugar beet, pomegranate, and fig.

 

        Local Crafts:

Masonry, ceramic design, inlaid, embossed, Carpet weaving, plasters molding, penmanship, leather, silk, cotton and other craft design products.

 

Histrical Attractions

Most important historical attractions in Qazvin Province are:

Gal- e Dukhtar and Shah Abbas traditional bath in Takestan. Castles of Alamut, Noyzar Shah, Lambsar, Semiran, Sangrood, Shahrak, Sassan, Shirk Kouh, Ayvan-e Niagh, Barajin Tower, old houses of Razavi, Sa-dyeh, Zarrab Khaneh, Golshan, Vazir, Haji Reza, Shahroudi, old dams of Seyed Ali Khan, Sepahsalar, old cemetery of Hassan Abad, Shah Kouh, old Village of GazarKhan, Harzovil, hills of Nosrat Abad, Gazanchal, Hussein Abad, Meshkin Tapeh, Alvand, Aga Baba, Dowlat Abad, bazaars of Gaysariy-e Sad Alsaltaneh, Sarbaz, Temcheh(arcade ), Darvish Mehdi Arcade, Caravanserais of Muhammad  Abad, Fareh, Panbeh, Gorbanali, Gazan, Soutan Abad, Shah Abbas Old Gates, Museum and Mansions of Kolah Farangi are in city of Qazvin.

 

 Religious Attractions

Important religiouse attractions of Qazvin province are:

Shrines of Imamzadeh Saleh, Suliman, Fazlollah, Abdollah in Takastan, Mosques of Great Jam-e, Heidary-e, Alnabi, Sanjideh, holy shrines of Imamzadeh Ali, Aba Zar, Zar Abad, Ali Akbar, Sagiz Abad, Prince Hussein, Ismail, Be Be Zobideh, Be Be Sakineh, Sultan Vees, Amaneh Khaton and Peigambariyeh ("the place of the prophets"). The mausoleum contains the resting place of four Jewish saints in city of Qazvin.

 Natural Attractions:

Sprig of Yaleh, hot spring of Avaj in Takestan, hot mineral water spring of Kharghan, mineral spring of AbTorsh, and Larzan in city of Qazvin.

                        

Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiary province:             Don  21

 

Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiary Province is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran. The Province is located in west center of the country and Shahre Kurd is its capital. The province is divided to five Counties includes Ardal, Brojen, Shahre Kurd, Farsian, and Ardakan.                       

Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiary province, consist of two parts first, Chahar Mahal means (4 cities), of Lar, Kiyar, Mizoj, and Gandomun, the second part Bakhtiary where Bakhtiary Tribe lives and named after the Tribe, this tribe historically is a branch of  Great Lur Trib used to move between two states of Khuzestan and Shiraz. The state has mild semi dry climate, colorful and charming nature with high mountains and slopes covered with flowers, ponds, lakes, lagoons, and water streams.

Local Cafts

Local arts such as, carpets, felt carpets, “giveh” (cotton summer shoes), coarse carpet, rags, black tents, coarse, woolen cloths, silk ropes, wooden ladlers and other crafts.

 

Historical Attractions:

Most important historical attractions in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiary are casstles of Dazk, Asadiyeh, Jonghan, Chalshtar, and Zaman Khan Bridge in Shahre Kurd.

 

Natural Attractions:

Ponds of Chaghakhor, Gandoman, and Solgan in Brojen, (attracts migrant birds during the migration).

Ski resorts of Sorshjan in Shahre Kurd. Ski resort of Chelgro, and Anar fall in Farsan and Atash-gah fall in Ardakan.

Religious Attractions:

Shrine of Imamzadeh Hamzeh Ali is in Brojen. Atabakan Mosque, shrines of Imamzadeh Halimeh, Hakimeh Khaton in Shahr-e Kurd. Shrine and mosque of Imamzadeh Farsan are in city of Farsan.

 

Kurdistan province                                                             Done    22

 

Kurdestan is one of the 30 provinces of Iran and it is located in the west of the country and bounded by Irag on the west. The capital of the province is the city of Sanandaj.

The counties of the province are Baneh, Bijar, Divandarreh, Sagez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, Marivan and Dehgolan. The mountainous land of this area and and the beauty encouaraged the kurds as first Aryan Tribes to settle in this region.

 

Climate

 

Kurdistan is one of the most mountainous regions in Iran and has a generally mild and quite pleasant climate throughout the spring and summer. Winters are long and can be very cold with heavy snowfalls. The Kurdish People are the majority population in this province, and they speak Sorani- Kurdish that is a northwestern Iranian Language. The region's historical name is Ardalan.

Kurdistan Province is entirely a mountainous region that can be divided into two western and eastern sections that are located in the east and west of Sanandaj .Kurdistan province has many rivers, lakes, natural ice-stores and caves. Consequently, Kurdistan has always attracted a large number of tourists and fans of mountaineering, ski and water-sports.

Zarrinehrood, 302 km long, is one of the longest rivers of this province. Its banks offer great opportunities for recreation and the river's plentiful water renders itself ideal for water sports. This river runs northwards and ultimately pours into Lake Urumiye.  

Sirvan River is another prominent river in this province. It runs over a long distance, eventually to join the Tigris in Iraq. The banks of this river are remarkably attractive.

 Zarineh Rood and Simineh rood are two other important rivers in this province. A large number of marine species and birds live on the banks of the province's numerous rivers that they seem to find ideal habitats.

Lake Zarivar is the most beautiful waterway of the province, which lies at the feet to high mountains, providing a delightfully picturesque sight. Its water is sparkingly fresh. The lake has a maximum depth of 50 m and an average depth of 3 m. It surrounded by thick forests. The whole collection of the lake, the mountains and forests generates a fascinating panorama. This lake, which has a length of 5 km and a maximum which width of 1.7 km, lies to the west of Marivan. Lake Vahdat's dam, to the north of Sanandaj (Sinne), provides excellent opportunities for fishing and water-sports.

Kurdistan benefits from many resourceful mineral water springs. The most outstanding of these are Govaz to the northwest of Kamyaran, Abetalkh close to Bijar and Baba Gorgor to the north of Ghorveh.

Cave Kereftoo, close to Divandarreh, is a unique natural and at the same time archeological site. Inside the cave, there are a number of ancient buildings known as the Temple of Heraclius, because the name of this Greek god carved on the ceiling of one of the halls. Cave Shoovi, 267 m long, is another prominent cave, which lies near the city of Baneh.

Mount Charkhaln 3,330 m high, mount Chehelcheshmeh, 3,173 m, Mount Hossein Bak, 3,091 m, and Mount Masjede Mirza, 3,059 m, are the other large mountains of Kurdistan, also Forest of Baneh, springs of Ab Talkh, Khavar Abd, Gamchgaya.

and Haft Asiyab in Bijar.Forests of Sagez, Sanandaj,and Forests of Marivan.

Kurdistan has vast forests and refuges, where many animals and birds live, safely from the harms of the human beings: the leopard, ram, wild goat, hyena, jackal, wolf, fox, sable, wild duck, stork, parrot and eagle.

Historical Attractions:

 

Castles of Partian and Sassanid era of Siavame, Namshir, Brojeh, Kivehro, Shoovi, Armardeh, Kileh, Boyen and Sar Bastani sho are in Baneh. Castlel of Gomchgi, brick tower of Oshgon and Baba are in Bijar. Kereftoo Cave (Partian era.) is in Divan Darreh. Andareh, Ancent hills of Ziviyeh and Aeinisor are in Sagez. Old houses of Mir Hussein Moshiri, Asef, Vaziri, Sadegh Vaziri, hills of Koresi, Arandon, Chano, old bath house of Khan, Vakili, Momtaz, old bazaars in Sanandaj. Old village of Oramat Takht, hills of Sarv Abad, Negol, Birdge of Jam Gardalan and Oramiha Bazaar in Marivan.

Religious Attractions

Importa religious attractions in Kordestan province are:

Jam-e mosque of Khosro Abad is in Bijar. Mosques of two towers and Jam-e in Jump to: navigation, search

 

Sagez. Mosques of Jam-e, Daralhesan, Hajer Khaton, and shrine of Peer Omar

are in Sanandaj. Shrine of Baba Gar Gar is in Ghorveh. Holy shrine of Hazrat Aekasheh is in Kamyaran. Mosques of Abdollah Omran and Sorkh are in Marivan.

 

       Isfahan Province:                              Done 26

   Isfahan Province is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran. It is suited in the center of the country and its capital is the city of Isfahan and was once one of the largest cities in the world. Isfahan Province divided to nineteen townships including Aran, Bidgol, Ardestan, Isfahan, Barkhovar, Meymeh, Khomeini Shahr, Khansar, Semirum, Shareza, Faridan, Feryedun Shahr, Flaw-verjan, Kashan, Lanjan, Mubarakeh, Nain, Najaf Abad and Natanz.

 

            Climate

  The regions in west and central are mountainous have mild and dry climate, east and northeast surrounded by Dasht-e Kavir Iran’s largest desert, hot and dry.

 

        City of Isfahan

The city of Isfahan is located in the lush plain of the Zayandeh Rood (river), at the foothills of the Zagros mountain range. The city enjoys a temperate climate and regular seasons. No geological obstacles exist within 90 km north of Isfahan, allowing cool northern winds to blow from this direction. Situated at 1590 meters above sea level, it receives an average of 355 mm of rain per year. The temperature ranges between 2 and 28 degrees Celsius. The city of Isfahan experiences an excellent climate with four distinct seasons. Today, the city retains much of its past glory. It is famous for its Islamic Architecture, with many beautiful boulevards, covered bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets. This led to the Persian proverb Isfahan nesf-e jahān ast: "Isfahan is half of the world".

The architecture of Isfahan is made up of eight traditional forms which taken together form the foundation in the same way that music was once based on a finite number of notes. These modulated by the use of colors and textures to leave the surfaces and held together in an overall construction akin to that of a sonata in which connection leads to culmination through a transition space. I.e. garden, platform, porch, gateway, dome, arched chamber, and minaret, although in the geometry and architecture of the buildings they are woven together to present a seamless whole.

 

Prehistory

The history of Isfahan can be trace back to the Paleolithic period. In recent discoveries, archeologists have found artifacts dating back to the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, Bronze and Iron ages.

Ancient Isfahan was part of the Elamite Empire. Under the name of Aspandana, it became one of the principal towns of the Median dynasty, when Iranian Medes settled there. Subsequently the province became part of the Achaemenid  Empire and after the liberation of Iran from Macedonian occupation by the Arsacids; it became part of Parthian Empire. Isfahan was the centre and capital city of a large province, which administered by Arsacid governors. In the Sassanid era, Isfahan governed by "Espoohrans" or the members of seven noble Iranian families who had important royal positions, and served as the residence of these noble families as well.

 

* Islamic Era

Isfahan fell, temporarily, under the rule of Arabs until the Abbasid era, in10th century, under the Buwayhid Dynasty, Isfahan regained its importance, in the reign of Malek Shah l of the Seljuk Dynasty, Isfahan again selected as capital and commenced another golden age. In this period, Isfahan was one of the most thriving and important cities of the world. The famous Persian Philosopher Ebn-e Sina lived and taught there in the 12 century.

* The city raided and the Mongols massacred most of its inhabitants in the 13th century, the raid followed by that of Timur Lang in 1387. However, as the result of its suitable geographic situation, Isfahan flourished again especially during the Safavid Dynasty, which developed considerably.

The Golden Age of Isfahan arrived in the 16th century under Shah Abbas the Great  (1587-1629), who conquered it and made it the new capital of the Safavid Dynasty. During the reign of Shah Abbas I, who unified Persia, Isfahan reached its pinnacle. Isfahan had parks, libraries and mosques that amazed Europeans, who had not seen anything like this at home. The Persians called it Nesf-e-Jahan (half the world) meaning that to see it was to see half the world, and referring to it as a point where many cultures and nationalities meet and mingled. In its heyday it was also one of the largest with a population of over half a million; 163 mosques, 48 religious schools, 1801 shops and 263 public baths.

*   Isfahan In 1722, raided by the Afghans, and after a long siege, which left much of the city in ruins. Although the Afghans were a primary cause of Isfahan's decline, European merchants can also attribute this to the development of maritime commerce from such countries such as the Netherlands. Isfahan's wealth originated in its role as a chief way station along the trans-Asia trade route (such as the Silk Road), but land trade dwindled as the cheaper sea routes increased in popularity for transporting commodities between Asia and Europe.

*   During the 17th and 18th centuries, Isfahan province enjoyed high standards of prosperity, as it became the capital of Safavid Persia. While the city of Isfahan was their seat of monarchy, Kashan was their place of vacation and leisure.

Isfahan province encompasses various sects today. The majority of the people in the province are Persian speakers, but Bakhtiaris, Georgians, Armenians, Qashqais and Persian Jews also reside in the province. The official language of the province is Persian, though different ethnic groups and tribes abide by their own language. Isfahan province noted for its reputed personalities such as writers, poets and other imminent figures that have been born and brought up or have lived in this territory.

*   Local Crafts:

*   Isfahan has long been one of the centers for production of the famous Persian carpets

*   and rugs weaving which flourished in the Safavid era. Carpet weaving taken seriously by the people of Isfahan. They started to weave Safavid designs and once again became one of the most important nexus of the Iranian rug weaving industry. Isfahan carpets today are among the most wanted in world markets, having many customers in western countries.

*   Isfahan rugs and carpets usually have ivory backgrounds with blue, rose, and indigo motifs. Rugs and carpets often have very symmetrical, balanced designs and excellent quality.

*    

*   Other crafts and designs include penmanship, enamel work, inlaid work, silvery, ceramic, tile, and crockery. Also, ask for Gaz and Popak (sweets).

*    

 

Historical Sites in Isfahan Province:

Beautiful palaces and mansions of Ali Qapu- early 17th century, Chehel Soton (the palace of forty Columns), Hasht Behesht (the place of eight paradises), famous bridges of Si-o-Se Pol (the Bridge of 33 Arches) Over the Zayandeh Rood (considered epitome of Safavid bridge design-1602), Khaju, Shahrestan (11th century), Marnan, Saadat Abad, caravansaries of Sheikh Alikhan, Mahyar, Sara-ye- Sephid, Mirza Kochek, Khonsareha, Manar Jonban

(a famous minaret),Chehel Doughtar, Sar-e ban, Ziyar, Rahrovan, Atashgah (Zoroastrian FireTemple), Dar Alzia, very beautiful “Imam Square” (Naqsh-e Jahan)-1602 and Meydan-e Kohneh (Old Square), inscriptions of  Abusaid Monastery, entrance to Ghaysar-e-yeh, bazaar, Haron Valayat, old school of Chahar Bagh, Baba Ghasem, Mullah Abd Allah, Mirza Hassan, Kaseh Garan, Jalaliy-e, Mullah Gotb, old houses,old pigeon towers In Isfahan. Jogand Caravansary ,Fin garden, Panjeh-e Shah, Mullah Ghotb, old houses caravansaries of Jogand, Gomrok, Moteh, museums of Fin Gardens and National Museum of Kashan Tour Caravanseray in Golpay-e gun, Naein and Bagh Bazaar, Mansions of Taj Abad In city of Natanz are the most historical attractions in Isfahan Province.

Religious Attractions:

Mosques of Jam-e, Abassi, Sheikh Lotf Ollah, Zolfaghar, Aziran, Agha Noor, Mesre, Shafe-yeh and  Shiekh Alyan in city of Isfahan. Mosques of Jam-e, Dasht Ramiran, Imam Hassan, Sefid, Zavareh are in Ardastan. Jam-e Mosque of Khonnsar, holy shrines of Imamzadeh Shahreza are in Shahreza.

Mosque of Ashtarjan village (17 century) is in city of Flaverjan. Holy mausoleum of Habib Ebne Mousa, Soultan Mirahmad, Abu LuLu, shrines of Imamzadeh Zain Aldin city of Ardehal, Be Be Shah Zaynab, Shah Sultan Hussein’s resting place, old mosques of Agha Bozorgh, Mir Emad, Mian Deh Ghahrood, and Abyaneh in Kashan. Mausoleum of Eighty-Three and Saravar Mosque of Golpayegan, Jameh Mosque of Naein, Shrines of Seyed Vaghef and Khajeh Abd Alsamad are in Natanz.

Natural Sites:

Shalora Falls, Kurd Alia, hot water springs of Varton Khor, Biabanak, Shah Fall, and Kah Rood Cave in Isfahan. Beautiful Caves of Shah Ghandab in Shahreza, hot springs of Sulimani, Nain, Ghamsar, and Niasar in Kashan. Springs (makes travertine), hunting ground of Moteh are in Golpayegan and Abbas spring in Natanz.

*  Naqsh-e Jahan Square "Imam Square”, in Isfahan is one of the biggest city squares in the world and the most glorious and  flourishing architecture during  Safavid Dynasty

(Shah Abbas l), designed like a big rectangle with Ali Qapo Mansion, Imam Mosque, Shiekh Lutfollah, and Gheysarey-e

each at one side of the rectangle Imam Square is an outstanding example of Iranian and   Islamic architecture, and, been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

*   Ali Qapo (The Royal Palace) is a masterpiece and famous for its architectural, plaster and inside tile work. The palace was designed for meetings, and entertaining foreign dignitaries.

*  Sardar-e Geyser is located in north of the Naqsh-e Jahan Square and is famous for its paintings.

*  Jam-e Mosque of Abassi or Imam’s Mosque is located in south of Imam Square (Nagsh-e Johan Square). If there has to be, a most stunning building in the world this is it, another masterpiece of architectural design and tile work.

*  Sheikh Lotf- Allah Mosque- is one of the high-ranking holiest Shi’a clergymen

*  A public place for worshipers, and is master piece of architectural and inside tile work and

*  been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

*   

*  Si-o-Sepol- is one of its kinds, was built during Safavid Dynasty (Shah Abas-el), with the expense and supervision of Sardar Allah Verdi Khan and considered epitome of Safavid bridge design and it is the longest bridge over The Zayandeh rood (river).

*  Fin Castle and Garden- is one of the most glorious and stunning mansion in Isfahan Province, and build during safavid era. During the Qajar era, some additions added to the mansion. Today this place is the most attraction place for tourists from near and all around the world.

 

 

Modern age

* Today Isfahan, is the third largest city in Iran, produces fine carpets, textiles, steel, and handicrafts. Isfahan has one of the largest steel producing facilities in the entire region the city has an international airport and is in the final stages of constructing its first    Metro line.

* Over 2000 companies are working in the area using Isfahan's economic, cultural, and social potentials. Isfahan contains a major oil refinery and a large Steel Manufacture.

 

City of Kashan                                                                         

Kashan is another jewel city in the province of Isfahan and a city in desert. It had an estimated population of 272,359 in 2005.  Kashan is one of the ancient cities of Iran and discovery in Silk Hills region proves pre historical life existed in Kashan. The historical Fin Gardens and Bazaar are the highlights of Kashan and a fine example of traditional Persian architecture. Bazaar has many interesting buildings inside it, like mosques, caravanserais and water storages and many more. Kashan is world famous for its carpets, also has a name for silk, ceramics, copperware and rosewater.

West Azerbaijan Province:                    Done 27

West Azerbaijan Province is located in North West of Iran. The province divided into 14 counties of Urumiye, Oshnaviyeh, Bukan, Piranshahr, Takab, Chaldoran, Khoy, Sardasht, Salmas, Shahin Dej, Maku, Mahabud, Miando Ab, and Naghadeh. Urumiye is the capital city of the province.

West Azerbaijan province is part of the Great Azerbaijan. Majority of state populations are Azeri and Kurdish, there are also three small ethnics and religious groups native to the province: Assyrian, Armenian and Jews. In 2006, the province had a population of 3,015,361.

 

Climate and Nature

The climate of the province is largely influence by the rainy winds of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean also cold northern winds affect the province during winter and cause heavy snow.

West Azerbaijan Province encompassing vast and fertile plains with, high mountains, and has moderate and healthy weather. Rivers with high volume of water, grape yards, orchards, luxuriant forest, rangelands, mountain  outskirt  with wonderful flora during spring, and the summer covered with tulips, magnificent wildlife, beautiful shores around the lake with different recreational facilities, which all together forms one of the most beautiful and  spectacular region in Iran.

Arass rivers banks in the north to Zab Kouchak valley in the south State of West Azarbijan is one of the mountainous places in Iran with lower elevations in East with mild and dry weather and higher elevations in West with cold and dry weather, especially in coastal areas of Urumiye. The province enjoys a wealth of historical attractions, with 169 sites registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran.

Touist Facilities:

Urumiye international Airport, Iran Europe Railroad and transit, that passes through the north portion of state and The city of Bazargan is the main gate for exports and imports to and from Europe through Turkey. Urumiye has variety of attraction places and facilities such as hotels, motels, restaurants, parks and others with great people to make it easy for visitors and tourists.

   

Local Crafts:

Carpet, short-Napped coarse carpet, rug, variety of woodwork, paintings on leather, mat, basket and other hand made products.

Historical Attractions:                

 Old Bazaar and Ancient Museum are in Urumiye. Famous inscriptions of Kalleh Shin and Aein

Alrom is in Oshnoviyeh. Ancient cave of Crafto is in Tukab. Hills of Ghallot, Shin Abad, Ghallot Mart Abad, and Ghallot Jeldian are in Piranshahr. Rocky residence of Farhad and Shirin are in Chaldoran. Castles of Bostan, Blur Abad old bridge of Khatun, Old Stone Gate  and old bazaar in city of Khoy. Castle of Gorchin Ghalae, old dam of Jamal- Abad, masonries of Khan Takhte (Ardeshir Babakan era.) and Shapour l are in city of Salmas. Hills of Gerd-tapeh, Chal-Tapeh are is in Shahin Dej. Petrography of Rosa City and RockyTomb of Orartu-e are in Mako. Small and large Caves of Burnik and Fagrgha (Orartu-e era.), city of Madi-ye-Andar Ghash, Achaemen Dakhmeh (tower of silence where the Zoroastrians lay the bodies of their dead) Daka in Andar in region of Andarghash are in Mahabad. Areas of Dash-tapehis are in Miando Ab Hill of Hassan-lou near Naghadeh (famous for its golden cup).

Religious Attractions

Important religious attractions of this state are:

Chuches of Zor-Zor, Darreh Sham, and very famous Ghara Church are in Chaldorun. Old Mosques of Matlab-Khan, mullah-Hassan, Seyed-Alshohada, ShamsTabrizi Minaret are in Khoy. Church of Saint Goeoge is in Salmas and Jam-e Mosque in Mahabadd.

Natural Attractions:

    Coastal area of  lake Urumiye, Islands of Kabodan, Ashk, Arazo, wild life habitat of     Vaspeer, hot springs of Zanbil, Haftabeh, Ganirjeh, Natural History Museum in Urumiye, hot and mineral  water springs of Vishlag, Eve Oghli, Shor Bolagh Bilvar, Zarean, Navye, mineral spring of Khan in city of Khoy and  recreational area of Grov in Sardasht. Hot spring water of Minas, Sadaghian and Vaysty Su are in Salmas. Hot mineral springs water of Shagafti, Shoot Abad, Bash Kandy, Galaejog Fall, wild life Habitant of Marakan, hunting grounds of Agh Gol in Mako, recreation area of Mian do Ab Dam, ponds of Garah Gol, Sir Yal Abad, Mineral spring of Zendan Suliman in Miando Ab. Ponds of Shikan, Yadegarlu, johood Abad, Garoh Geya and Khoslu in Nagadeh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fars Province                                             Done 28

 

Fars province is one of the 30 Provinces of Iran. It is in the south of the country and its center is Shiraz. The province divided into 18 counties, which include Abadeh, Arsanjan, Estahban, Eqlid, Bovanat, Jahrum, Khoram Bid, Darab, Sepeedan, Fasa, Firouz Abad, Kazeroon, Lar, Lamerd, Marvdasht, Mamasani, Nayreez and Shiraz as provincial capital. Fars is the original homeland of the Persian people. The native name of the Persian Language is Farsi or Parsi.

 

Climate and Wildlife

There are three distinct climatic regions in the Fars Province. The regions located in mountainous area of the north and northwest with moderate cold winters and mild summers. The central regions are with relatively rainy mild winters, and hot dry summers. The region located in the south and southeast, has moderate winters with very hot summers. The average temperature of Shiraz is 16.8 °C, ranging between 4.7° and 29.2 °C. The geographical and climatic variation of the province causes varieties of plants; consequently, variation of wild life formed in the province. Additional to the native animals of the province, many kinds of birds migrate to the province every year. Many kinds of ducks, storks and swallows migrate to this province in annual parade. The main native animals of the province are Gazelle, deer, mountain wild goat, ram, ewe and many kinds of birds. The province of Fars includes many protected wild life zones.

People and culture

The people of this province have a history of having a simple living and being a capable people who are determined and effective warriors and fighters whenever circumstances made it necessary. They have gained such a reputation as being excellent, if not the best, equestrian in Iran. The people of this province, while having the more common Pahlevani wrestling/combat style of the deep rooted traditional Zurkhane, which exists everywhere in all provinces, also have their own style of wrestling/unarmed combat as well (as do other provinces). The style called Jangi

The province has various unique traditions and rituals relative to the 'tribal' lifestyles. Special forms of music, dance, and clothing are noteworthy

 

History

The ancient Persians were present in the region from about the 9th century BC, and became the rulers of a large empire under the Achaemenid dynasty  in the 6th century BC. The Persepolis and Pasargadae, two of the four capitals of the Achaemenid Empire, are located in Fars.

The Achaemenid Empire defeated by Alexander in the fourth century BC. The Seleucid Empire defeated by the Parthians in 238BC.

                              A Sassanid relief showing the investiture of Ardashir I

Ardashir l Sassanid Emperor rapidly extended his territories and Sassanids ruled for 425 years until the Arab armies conquered the Persia. During the Safavid era, Fars flourished again and in 18 century badly damaged by Afghan Invasion.

    Shiraz soon returned to prosperity under the enlightened rule of Karim Khan Zand          who made it the capital of his reign in 1762 and employing more than 12,000 workers       

        And constructed a royal district with a fortress, many administrative buildings,

        a mosque and one of the finest covered bazaars in Iran

Qajar dynasty also contributed a great deal to the construction of the city and many of the famous gardens and, buildings.

Fars during the course of history passed hand to hand through numerous dynasties, leaving behind numerous historical and ancient monuments; each has its own values as a world heritage, reflecting the history of the province and Iran.

Economy

Agriculture is of great importance in Fars Province. The major products include cereal (wheat and barley), citrus fruits, dates, sugar beets and cotton.

Fars has major petrochemical facilities, along with an oil refinery, a factory for producing tires, a large electronics industry, and a sugar mill.

Shiraz Airport is the main international airport of the province and the second in the country. The cities of Lar and Lamerd also have airports linking them with Shiraz and Tehran and nearby Persian Gulf countries such as the UAE and Bahrain as well. Shiraz is along the main route from Tehran to southern Iran.

Tourism is also a large industry in the province. UNESCO has designated an area in the province, called Arjan (known as Dasht e Arjan) as a biosphere reserve.

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City of Shiraz

Shiraz is located in the south of Iran and the northwest of Fars Province. It built in a green plane at the foot of the Zagros Mountains 1500 meters (5200 ft) above sea level. Shiraz is 919 Kilometers (571 miles) south of Tehran.

In the 13th century, Shiraz became a leading center of the arts and letters and the presence of many Persian scholars and artists. Shiraz is the city of poets, and flowers. It is also consider by many Iranians to be the city of gardens. There are many old gardens in Shiraz such as the Eram Garden and the Afif Abad.

Shiraz is land of poets, mystics and philosophers among the important Iranian born in Shiraz were the Sa’di and Hafez the mystic Roozbehan and the philosopher Mulla Sadra.

Hafez

Hafez was a Persian Mystic and Poet. He was born sometime between the years 1310 and 1337 in Shiraz and is one of the greatest poets of the world.

His lyrical poems, known as Ghazals, beauty and bring to fruition the love, mysticism, and early Sufi themes that had long pervaded Persian Poetry.

The mausoleum of Hafez is located in Hafeziyeh north of the city of Shiraz.

Saadi

Saadi a native son of Shiraz Shiekh Saadi left his native town at a young age for Baghdad to study Arabic literature and Islamic sciences at Al-Nizamiya of Baghdad (1195-1226).

The unsettled conditions following the Mongol invasion of Persia led him to wander abroad through Anatolia, Syria, Egypt, and Irag. He also refers in his work to travels in India and Central Asia. Saadi mingled with the ordinary survivors of the Mongol holocaust. He sat in remote teahouses late into the night and exchanged views with merchants, farmers, preachers, wayfarers, thieves, and Sufi mendicants. For twenty years or more, he continued the same schedule of preaching, advising, learning, honing his sermons, and polishing them into gems illuminating the wisdom and foibles of his people.

When he reappeared in his native Shiraz, he was an elderly man. Saadi was not only welcomed to the city but was respected highly by the ruler and enumerated among the greats of the province.

His best-known works are Bostan ("The Orchard") in 1257 and Gulistan ("The Rose Garden") in 1258. Bostan is entirely in verse and consists of stories aptly illustrating the standard virtues recommended to Muslims (justice, liberality, modesty, contentment) as well as of reflections on the behavior of dervishes and their ecstatic practices. Golestan is mainly in prose and contains stories and personal anecdotes. The text is interspersed with a variety of short poems, containing aphorisms, advice, and humorous reflections. Saadi demonstrates a profound awareness of the absurdity of human existence. The fate of those who depend on the changeable moods of kings contrasted with the freedom of the people.

The peculiar blend of human kindness and cynicism, humor, and resignation displayed in Saadi's works, together with a tendency to avoid the hard dilemma, make him, to many, the most typical and lovable writer in the world of Iranian culture.

Saadi distinguished between the spiritual and the practical or mundane aspects of life. In his Bostan, for example, spiritual Saadi uses the mundane world as a springboard to propel himself beyond the earthly realms. The images in Bostan are delicate in nature and soothing. In the Golestan, on the other hand, mundane Saadi lowers the spiritual to touch the heart of his fellow wayfarers and will always remain in reader's mind the ring of truth in the divisions.

      The mausoleum of Saadi is located in Shiraz.

 

Persepolise /Takht –e Jamshid

Persepolise is located 130 kms northeast of modern city of Shiraz in Fars province.

   Persepolise, the gate of all Nations built in about 500 BC by Achaemenian Darius the    great King. The work began in 515 BC and was completed 30 years later, by his son   Xerxes I his successor. Persepolis was an ancient ceremonial capital of the Persian Empire.

   The most glorious palace at Persepolis complex building with 72 columns named Apadana and used for the King of Kings' official audiences. The Walls were tiled and decorated with pictures of lions, bulls, and flowers. Next to the Apadana is the Throne Hall or the Imperial Army's hall of honour also called the "Hundred-Columns Palace “ and used mainly for receptions for military commanders and representatives of all the subject nations of the empire.

  During the the invasion Alexander allowed his trops to loot Persepolis and held games in honor of his victories, he lighted  the torche and started the fire as the others all did the same, immediately the entire palace area consumed and burned down the Persepolis.

The UNESCO declared the citadel of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.

Persepolis is also one of the 80 treasures featured on.

            Attractions of Shiraz

          The most popular attractions of Shirāz are:

             Shah Cheragh ("the King of Lights"), the holy shrine of Seyed Amir Ahmad, the brother of Hazrat -e Imam Reza, the eighth Imam. The Shrine is a holy place and an important place for pilgrimage.             

  The tombs of Hafez, Saadi, Khaju Kermani and Haft Tanan mausoleum where Seven Sufi mystics are buried. The Tomb of Baba Kuhi sits at a mountain top overlooking the city, and the tomb of Karim Khan Zand is at the Pars Museum of Shiraz , one of the most historical buildings is the Kian, this building was made around the time of Cyrus The Great and has been a popular tourist attraction ever since.

Among the mosques, the oldest is Atig Jam-e Mosque, followed by Vaki Mosque and Nasir Al Mulk Mosque with their unique architecture. There are several shrines as well, the most famous one known as Shah Chiragh

The citadel of Arg of Karim Khan sits adjacent to the Vakil Bazaar and Vakil Bath at the city's central district.

Local crafts

The crafts of Shiraz consist of inlaid mosaic work of triangular design; silverware, pile carpet weaving, Gilim, textile products, wood products, metalwork and rugs.

Historical Attractions:

Sassani Palace is in Abadeh, castle of Izad Khast in Aglid. Castles of Mehrak, Khorsheh and Gabar, are in Jahrum. Naghshaye Rostam, Shapour, fier temple of Azarakhsh, Azarjo and Hakhamesh are in city of Darab. Gardens of Golshan, Aram, Delgosha, Chehel Tan, Haft Tan, Jahan Nema, Takht, Gardens of Saadi, Hafez, castle of Abunasr, citadel of Karim Khani, Mansions of Ilkhani, Bagh Neshat Bagh Nazar, castle of Ajdaha (dragon), Paykar, bathhouses of Neshat, Vakil, Bazaars of Vakil, new, old schools of Khan, Aga Baba Khan, fire temple of Pasargard, Samikan are in city of Shiraz. Castle of Zahak in Fasa. Fire temple of Kenar Siyah, Farash Band, caravansari of Sassani and Galeh Doukhtar are in Firoz Abad. Nagsh-e Shapour (petrography of Shapour), ancient city of Bashyapour are in Kazeroon. Castle of Gadamgah is in Lar. Remaining of the old city Estakhr, Persepolis, petrograph of Tang Boragi and Nagsh Rajab are in Marvdasht. Old bridges of Fahlian and Nagsh Bahrum are in Mamasani.

 

Religious Attractions:

Mosques of Sangi, Jam-e Aramgahs of Prince Abu-algassem, and Shah Abu Zakaria are in city of Darab. Mosques of Jam-e Tahghigh, Shohada, and Nasir Almolk are in city of Shiraz and holy shrine of Imamzadeh Darahanin in Mamasani.

 

Natural Attractions:    

Protected wild life zones of Basiran and Toot Siyah are in Abadeh. Receational area of Bardaneh, Forest park of Estahban, Kaftar Lake, springs of Balangan, Gadamgah, Chono, Muhammad Rasol Ollah, Beautiful fall of Dashtak Abarj in Aghlid. Recreational area of Biniz is in Jahrum. Receational area of jonjan, Tang lay- Zangon, and Abband in Darab. Spring of Sepeedan, lakes of Maharlo, Arjan, springs of Khargon Varchi recreation area of Fily, spring of Salmani, Barm Valk, Chah maski, Mian Kotal, Band Bahman, Nation Park of Bemo in city of Shiraz and recreation area of Mian Jangal in Fasa. Spring of Firetemple, Tongab, Tang Khergeh and receation area of Shahid are in Firoz Abad. Beautiful Lake of Parishan is in Kazaron. Preserved area of Hermodlar, springs of Abo Almehdi and Bozaband Margon Fall are in Marvdasht. Recreational aera of Dimehmil, hot water spring of Sarab Bahram are in Mamasani.

 

 

Khorasan-e- Shomally (North) Province:   Done 25                   

Province is a new state, it was part of Khorasan province until (AD. 2004) and located in     northeast of the country and shares 220 Km border with Turkmenistan. This province is consists of four counties include Bojnord, Esfarayen, Jajrum and Shirvan.City of Bojnord is the capital of the North Khorasan Province.

Climate

Province has mild summers and cold winters.

Historical Attractions:

Old castles of Hassan Abad, Ghaysar, Saolak, old city of Belgays and hills of Sarmaran are in Esfarayen. Castles of Khan, Pah-le-van, and Jalal Al Din are in Jajrum.

  Religious Attractions

Most important religious attractions in Khorasan Shomali are:

Shrines of Imamzadeh Ahmad Reza, Abdollah Korun, Prince Zandiyeh, Sheikh Muhammad Rashid- Al Din, and Prince Jafar are in Esfarayen. Shrine of Soultan Seyed Abbas is in Bojnord. Shrines of Ali-Ebn-e Mehryar, Maesom Zadeh and Danial Nabi in Jajrum.Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Hamzeh Reza in Shirvan.

 

  Natural Attractions:

Old trees, preserved natural resources area of Sary gol, Noshirvan Cave, and shrine in Esfrain. Salog, preserved area, springs of five Ghardash (five brothers), Baba Aman in Bojnord. Countrysides of Zavarem, Oghaz, Golbol Namanlo, and preserved area of Golol are in Shirvan.

 

Local Crafts:

Carpet, rug and felt weaving, rockery, turquoise design cutting, penmanship on stone and coarse carpet.

 

 

    East Azerbaijan Province:                      Done 29

 East Azerbaijan is one of the 30 provinces of Iran and it is located in North West of the       country. The province divided into 16 counties, which include Ahar, Azar Shahr, Bonab, Bostan Abad, Hashtrood, Haris, Jolfa, Kalibar, Maragheh, Marand, Malkan, Mianeh, Osko, Sarab, Shabestar, and Tabriz the provencial capital of east Azarbaijan Province.

Climate

East Azerbaijan province has mountainous climate, cold freezing temperature in winters and very mild and dry in summers.

History

 East Azerbaijan Province is a portion of Ancient Azerbaijan, and one of the oldest and historical states of Iran. During the Achaemenian Dynasty (B.C 550-330), the ancient city of Shez was its capital.

       After Alexander conquered Persia, he appointed the Persian General Atropat

       as Governor of Azarbiajan Province. In (331 BC) Atropat liberated the region, and established independent dynasty and changed its name to Atropatkan and later on to Azerbaijan.

       In 645 AD after the Islamic Conquest of Iran, most of its people converted to Islam and

       made it part of the Khalifate. The Arabs also settled in Azerbaijan more numerously

       than other provinces due to the it’s wide and green pastures. Local revolts against the Khalifeh were common and the most famous of these revolts was that Persian Khurramdin movement. After the revolt of Babak Khorramdin, the grip of the Abbasid Khalifeh on Azerbaijan weakened, allowing native dynasties to rise in Azerbaijan.              During the invasion of Iran by Mongolians (A.D 1220), Azerbaijan became their seat of government with Maraghe as their capital and later on, they moved the capital back to Tabriz. It was out of Ardabil (ancient Artavilla) that the Safavid dynasty arose to renew the state of Persia and establish Shi'ism as the official religion of Iran.

During Qajars dynasty, Azerbaijan became the traditional residence of theirs-apprent and the final northern frontier of Iran with Russia (along the Araxes) and ended with signing ofTheTurkamanchay Treaty in 1828.

Province is an important industrial and commercial state with petrochemical and food packaging factories with International Airport, Railroad, and many historical places to see.

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       Local Crafts:

     Crapts, galims (coarse carpet), jajim (loosely woven cloth), rugs, bags, fine silk, crochet articles, needlework, baskets, variety of fine leathers, purses, briefcases, shoes, and wallets.

      Nuts and dry fruits are also important items of this area.

Historical Attraction:

Historical attractions of East Azerbaijan province are:

Beautiful and amazing village of Kandavan is in city of Osko. Old tree of the Maydane (square)) Shahrestan is in city of Azar Shahr, Castles of Gahgaha, Joshin, Pashto, and Noroz in city of Ahar. Municipality Building, mansions of Anal Goli, castle of Rab Rashidi, Great Bazaar, and Azarbaijan Museum are in Tabriz. Saint Stespson’s very old Church

also called Ruin Church in Jolfa. Stone Caravanserai is in Sarab. Famous castle of Babak is in Sarab and the famous observatory of Khajeh Nasir that constructed in the year 675 A.H. during the rule of Hollakoo Khan with request of great Iranian scholar Khajeh Nasiroddin Toosi in Maragheh.

Village of Kandavan

 Beautiful and amazing village of Kandovan, Village is a living example of human adaptation to exceptionally unusual natural surroundings, is located 50 Km to the south of Tabriz,

       in Osko district, on the northern slopes of a valley at the foothills of Mount Sahand, a river  originating from the Sahand peaks passes through the valley.

 There are a number natural springs to the north of the river, the water traditionally used for the treatment of kidney stone, according to locals. The physical structure of the village looks like images from fairy tales. Natural cones, scattered over a vast area, serves as human dwelling rack formations which themselves seem to have been the work of certain sculptors.  The road goes on through this natural artwork. On getting nears to the dwellings, the visitor find out that the large families are living inside tower three of these hollow interconnected cones with features such as openings on their surface playing the role of actual windows. The lowest cones used as stables and those on top as theliving quarters. The interiors of the dwellings, divided into a living and bedroom, dimly lit. As the legend goes, the first people to settle there were the soldiers involved in military operations over 800 years ago.

Religious Attractions

The most important religious attractions of state are:

Imamzadeh Osko and mausoleum of Sultan Hossam Al Din are in Osko. Mosques of Shir-Amin and Chahar-Su are in city of Azar Shahr. The Jam-e Mosque of Ahar (Seljukian A.D 1038-1194), jam-e Mosque, Alishah and very famous mosque of Kabood are in city of Tabriz. Sangi Mosque of Jamal Abad is in Sarab. Jam-e Mosque of Tasoj in Shabestar (Ilkhanid Dynasty A.D 1256-1352) and shrine of Imamzadeh Shah Ghasem (Safavid Dynasty A.D 1501-1732) are in Kalibar.

Natural Attractions

The most famous natural attractions in East Azarbaijan province are the beautiful village of Ashtbin in Ahar. Beautiful canyons of Sahand (Bride of the Iranian mountains) are in Tabriz. Beautiful coastal area of Aras is in Jolfa. Hot mineral water springs of Allah Hagh, Abras in Sarab. Famous cave of Kabutar (pigeon), hot mineral water springs of Varjavi, Goshayesh, Sarisu and Shorsu in city of Maragheh.

 

Khorasan-e -Jonobi (south) Province:      Done

Southern Khorasan is one of the 30 provinces of Iran and it is located in east of the country,       and divided into four counties of Birjand, Nehbandan, Qayenat, and Sarbish-e. The       provincial capital of Khorasan-e Jonobi is Birjand. Khorasan known for its famous carpets and rugs as well as saffron that produced in southern cities of this province.

  

    Climate

     Due to closeness of state to central desert, state has unique characteristics and attractions of

    a desert and modern living condition of cities. The province has mild winters and hot summers.

        Historical, natural and religious:

Chansht Cave, Nehbandan and Furg citadels, Jam-e Mosque, shrine of Imamzadeh Mousa and Mansions of Alam are in Birjand.

Khadang Cave, mausoleum of Bozarjomehr, resting place of Abo-Almafakher and Jam-e Mousque are in Qayenat. Forests of Tank, Wild Willo, Saffran, Wild Plum, Seyah Daneh, and Boteh Gavan are in Khorasan-e Jonobi.

Local Crafts and Souviniers:

Carpet, felt carpet, basket, mat, and turquoise.

Please do not forget Saffran and Zereshk.

 

 



تاریخ : جمعه 10 خرداد‌ماه سال 1387 | 20:27 | چاپ | نویسنده: « رامسر نیوز » «Ramsarnews» اخبار رامسر | نظرات (0) (0 لایک)
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