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IRAN-RAMSAR-2

 

Tehran Province:                               Done  

 Tehran Province is one of the 30 provinces of Iran and located in north center of the country.

 Tehran province borders, Mazandaran Province to the north, Semnan province to the east, Ghazvin province

 to the west, and Qom province to the south. Tehran Province is consist of Islam Shahr, Pakdasht, Tehran,

 Damavand, Robat Karim, Ray, Savjablagh,Shemiranat, Firoz Kouh, Karaj and Varamin.

Climate  

    The northern part of the state is at the foot of the Alborz Mountain range has mild and semi dry climate

     and southern part hot and dry during the summer.

 

 

   Tehran:

Tehran is the capital and largest city of Iran (Persia), the largest city in Southwest Asia and the administrative Center of Tehran Province. More than half of Iran's industry based in Tehran; Industries include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, textiles, sugar, cement, and chemical products. It is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture. There is an oil refinery south of the city.

Tehran is a sprawling City at the foot of the Alborz Mountain range with an immense network of highways unparalleled in Western Asia. It is also the hub of the country's railway network. The city has numerous large museums, art centers, palace complexes and cultural centers.

In the 20th century, Tehran faced a large migration of people from all around Iran.

History:

Excavations place the existence of settlement in Tehran as far back as 6000 B C E. Tehran was well- known as a village in the 9th century.

In the early 13th century, following the destruction of Ray by Mongols, many of its inhabitants

escaped to Tehran. Tehran became a residence of the Safavid rulers in the 17th century.

Shah Tahmasp I built a bazaar and a wall around the city.

 

 

On September 8, 1978, demonstrations against the Shah led to riots. The army reportedly opened fire on

The peaceful demonstrating crowed .Revolution paralyzed the country; Muhammad Reza Pahlavi fled the country

and Hazrat-e Ayatollah Khomeini on February, 1, 1979 returned From France enthusiastically greeted by

Millions of Iranians. Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979.

During the 1980 –1988 Iran –Iraq War, Tehran was the scene of repeated Scud Missile and air strikes targeted

residential and industrial area within the city, resulting in thousands of civilians casualties.

Material damages repaired soon after each strike. After the war modern high- rise buildings dominate

 The city’s skyline and a new modern apartments have and are replacing the few remaining

old houses at a rapid pace.

 



Landmark and Tehran Modern Architecture

    Tehran is a diverse and beautiful city combining the ancient civilization of Iran with modern developments and living.

     Modern high-rise developments in Tehran demonstrate the architectural progress made in this great city and

    particular areas of bland housing demonstrate the speed at which this progress was made within some places.

   Tehran is also home to the world's fourth tallest freestanding structure, Tehran International Tower (The Milad Tower).

 

 

The White Tower, Borje Sefid,

Modern highrises of Elahiyeh district

    Goldiss

 

 

 

The Milad Complex         

                                                                        Tehran International Tower

       The Tehran International Trade and Conventions Center, also called The Milad Complex, is one of the largest

       structures in Iranian architecture. The complex contains the world's fourth highest tower, which has several

       restaurants, a five star hotel, a convention center, a world trade center, and an IT park. The complex

       seeks to respond to the needs of business in the globalized world of the 21st century by offering facilities

       combining trade, information, communication, convention and accommodation all in one place.

Transportation:

 

 

 

   Tehran currently has 3 operational metro lines (Line 1, 2 and 5) Tehran relies heavily on private cars, buses, motorcycles, and taxis, and is one of the most car-dependent cities in the world.

Ski:

 

The ski resort of Dizin situated to the north of Tehran in the Alborz Mountains

Within 10 minutes, driving distance from Tehran is the ski resort of Touchal. Touchal is the world's fifth highest ski resort, at over 3,730 meters (12,240 ft) at its highest seventh station.

 

*  DIzin Ski Resort. Dizin is situated in Alborz Mountain in north of Tehran and driving time about

*  Is 2.5 hours from the capital city. Dizin ski amenities include 2 hotels, 19 cottages and 7 restaurants, the ski activity in Dizin complex not confined just for winter season.

*   

Tourism and Attractions:

* Tehran's Golestan Palace, National Museum of Iran, Sa’dabad Palace Complex, Glassware and Ceramics            Museum of Iran, The Carpet Museum of Iran, Tehran’s Under glass painting Museum, and Niavaran

Palace Complex. Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art features the works of great artists

such as Van Gogh, Pablo Picasso and Andy Warhol.

* Tehran is also home to the Iranian Imperial Crown Jewels, also called the Imperial Crown Jewels of Persia,

* it is claimed to be the largest, most dazzling and valuable jewel collection in the world. The collection is comprised of a set of crowns and thrones, some 30 tiaras, numerous aigrettes, jewel-studded swords and shields, a vast amount of precious loose gems, including the largest collections of emeralds, rubies and diamonds in the world. The Imperial Crown Jewels are still on display in the Iranian Central Bank in Tehran.

 

*   Museums :

*  Golestan Palace, is the oldest of the historic monuments in Tehran.

*  National Museum of Iran,Kolahstudio-an Art Basement,

*   Sa'd Abad Gallery of Fine Arts, Glassware Museum of Tehran, Iran's National Rug

*  Gallery, Reza Abbasi Museum

*  Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art,

*  Tehran Theater of the Performing Arts (Te'atr e Shahr) Niavaran Palace, Kolahstudio-an Art Basement, Sa'd Abad Gallery of Fine Arts Glassware Museum of Tehran, Iran's National Rug Gallery, Reza Abbasi Museum, Tehran Museum of Contemporary Art,

*  Talar Vahdat Theater

*  National Museum of Iran, Daraband Museum of Natural History

*  Saadabad Palace, (Persian site).

*  Time Museum, Evolution of time-measurement instruments. Located in Farmaniyeh district, north of Tehran

*  Money Museum- coins and banknotes from different historic periods. The Museum is located in Mirdamad street.

   

*    

    Religious centers

*   Hosseiniyeh Ershad, Soltani Mosque built by Fatah Ali Shah, Atiqh Mosque, built in 1663.

*   Mo'ezz o-dowleh mosque, built by Fatah Ali Shah, Haji Seyed Azizollah Mosque, built by Fatah Ali Shah, Aljavad Mosque,  Iran's first modernist design mosque, the Old Sepahsalar Mousque, another prominent Qajar era mosque, the new Sepahsalar Mosque (Madreseh e Motahari),

*   Shahr Banu Mausoleum and Qajar era mosques of  Filsuf o-Dowleh, Moshir ol-Saltaneh

*   and Mo'ayyer al-Mamalik.

*    

Churches:

Surp Georg, 1790, Thaddeus Bartoqimus 1808, Tatavus, from the Qajar era Enjili 1867 and Assyrian Church.

 

 

 

City of Ray:                                                         Done

 

      Ray is an old city of Iran and the most historic city in the Province of Tehran. The city estimated to be     more than six thousand years old, and built during the Median Empire and known in classical times as Rhagae to the pre-Median. Some historians attribute its building to ancient mythological monarchs,

      and some others believe that Ray was the seat of a dynasty of Zoroastrian leader.

Ray is richer than many other ancient cities in the number of its historical monuments,

among which one might refer to the 3000-year-old Gebri Castle, the 5000-year-old

Cheshmeh Ali hill, the 1000-year-old Bibi Shahr Banoo tomb and Shah Abbasi caravansary.

Ray was used as a recreation center due to its beautiful attractions under the reign of the

Qajar dynasty, Fatah Ali Shah often used to explore the city. In 1831 his portrait

 engraved on a rock at Cheshmeh Ali hill and its surrounding was decorated with tablets

 covered by poetry. After the Mongol conquest of ray, the town severely damaged and burned

     people escaped to nearby city Tehran and Varamin and gradually lost its importance.

    

   Ray today

Ray today has been absorbed into the Tehran metropolitan city, and the rest of Tehran.

Ray has many industries and factories in operation.

 

 Karaj:                                                             Don

 

Karaj with population of 1, 377,450 is located in Tehran province and is situated 20 km west of

Tehran, at the foot of Alborz Mountains; Karaj's climate is a bit cooler than Tehran and it receives 260                          mm of rain annually. However, the city is increasingly becoming an extension of the metropolitan Tehran

The city has many historical places from Sassanid and Ashkanid era, the history of Karaj dates back many    centuries. The stone built Zoroastrian fire temple of Takht- e Rostam from the Parthian era is a

testament to this.

The economical base for Karaj is its proximity to Tehran, where transportation of products between the

capital and the Caspian Sea is central. Chemicals, fertilizers and processed agricultural goods are also

produced here. 

Natural Attractions in Tehran Province:

1-Lakes and Dams:

Amir Kabir’s Lake and Dam is in Karaj. Lar Lake and Dams is in Lar region in city of Damavand. Lake Ahang is in Firoz Kouh Road and Lake Ziyar in Haraz Road.

2 - Rivers:

Karaj, Jajroud, Lar, Habaleh, Abhar, and Taleghan.

3- Springs:

Aala in Damavand, Ghalae, Doukhtar, and Ab Ali, in Haraz Road, and hot Springs of Larijan .

4-Water-falls:

Lar( in Lar region ) in Damavand, Twins in Shemiranat, Oshon in Darband area, Shakar-Ab in Maygon region and Yakh- Kouh water fall in Damavand which is one of the most famous historical fall in the world.

Mountains and Shelters:

Damavand is the highest mountain in Iran and is located in north east of Tehran; Touchal Peak in southern slopes of Alborz Mountain, peaks and shelters Of Kolak Chal, Shelters of Palang (Leopard) Chal, And Shir Pala.

Ski Resorts:

Darband –Sar and Shemshak in north east of Tehran, Ab- Ali in Haraz Road, Dizin In Karaj and Cha-los Road.

Caves:

Gol-Zard, Rud Afshan, In Damavand, Bur-Nik in Damavand and, Firoz Kouh road,Yakh –Morad in Tehran Cha-los road and Beuk-Agha in Kan Road.

Historical Attractions:

Palaces of Saltanat-Abad, Golestan,Sorkheh Hessar, and Saheb-Ghara-niyeh.

Saltanat Abad, Old Schools of Daraolfonoon, and Marvi in Tehran. Fatah-Ali-Shah caravansary in Robat Karim, historical Castles of Tabarak, Iraj, Towers of Naghareh Khaneh,

Toghrol tower, Haron Al Rashid’s Prison remaining of the ruined city of Seljuk, and Gebri hill are in city of Ray. Cemetery of Zoroastrians, Wooden Bridge, and Shah Caravansary are in Sav-Jabalagh.

Tanghwashi masonry in Firoz Kouh, the remaining of the Sassanid’s (Soleymaniyeh Palace) and Ashkani’s (Takhte-Rostam) stone Fire Temple in Karaj, Tower of Aela-Al-dole in Varamin.

Religious Attractions:

The holy Shrines of Imamzadeh Davod, Imamzadeh Saleh Imamzadeh Abdollah, Imamzadeh Zayd and old mosques of Imam Khomeini, Seyed Azizollah, Sepahsalar, and the Holy Shrine of Hazrat-e Imam Khomeini in Tehran.

The Holy Shrines of Hazrat-e Imam Abd- Al- Azims , Imamzadeh Hadi, Mausoleum of Ebne-Babbeyeh,

The Holy Shrine of Imamzadeh Hamzeh is in city of Ray. The Holy Shrines of Imamzadeh Jafar, Hossiniyeh Joestan and The house of Ayatollah Taleghani in Savjablagh. The Holy Shrine of Imamzadeh Ghasem is In Shemiran. The Shrines of Imamzadeh Hashem and Jam-e Mosque are in Firoz Kouh.

The Holy Shrine of Imamzadeh Yahya and Jam-e Mosque is in Varamin. The Grave of prince Salman and Mausoleum of Imamzadeh Rahman are in Karaj.

Mount Damavand:

Mount Damavand at 5,604 m (18,386 ft) is the country's highest peak also is the highest mountain on the Eurasian landmass west of the Hindu Kush. Mount Damavand is located 57 km NE of Tehran with no volcanic action in last hundred thousand years. Nearby, is the place, which called larijan with characteristics of a village. This region offers fabulous views of Mount Damavand, beautiful sceneries, river, numerous hot water springs, and friendly people. During the summer with mild and pleasant climate, the place is excellent for campers, fishers and nature lovers for vacation.

 

 

      The Azadi Tower

      The Azadi Tower (Freedom Square) is the first landmark visitors come across when arriving from

            the  Mehrabad  International Airport The construction of Azadi Tower finished in AD 1971,

     the Tower is 45 meters high, with a museum in the basement. The tower has been for

   many years an icon for Tehran and a national symbol of Iran.

The National Museum of Iran:

      The National Museum of Iran, world famous museum uniquely exhibits and covers well over 9,000        years of national symbol of Iran. Magnificent ancient Persian history, civilization and art,

      with constantly added items to the collections by new excavations. The construction of

      museum started in (A.D 1935), with supervision of Mr. Andre Godar a French nationality and

 

finished within two years . The museum building is a two- story building; consisting of auditorium, saloon, theatre, large exhibitions halls where archaeological, numismatic and ethnographical artifacts are. The library carries archaeological and ethnographical artifacts, coins, seals, manuscripts, variety of books, and publications in different languages and subjects such as history, archeology, and arts. This museum has been serving the culture, history and tourism of our country.

 

Golestan Palace

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  Economy

 

      About 30% of Iran’s public-sector workforce and 45% of large industrial firms are located in Tehran and

almost half of these workers work for the government, most of the remainder of workers are factory workers,     shopkeepers, and transport workers. Many foreign companies operate in Tehran because of the stability, and investment opportunities that government has provided for foreign investors. Today many modern industries of this city include the manufacturing of automobiles, electronics and electrical equipment, textiles, sugar,

cement, and chemical products, it is also a leading center for the sale of carpets and furniture.

The Tehran Stock Exchange, which is a full member of the Federation Internationale desdes Bourses dede dede Valeurs (FIBV) and a founding member of the Federation of Euro – Asian Stock Exchanges,

has been one of the world’s best performing stock exchanges in recent years.

      There is an oil refinery near Ray, south of the city. Tehran has two International Airports,

       Mehrabad and Imam Khomeini Airport.

    

 

 

 

 

Khorasan Razavi Province:

                                                

  Khorasan Razavi Province is one of the 30 provinces of Iran, and located in north east of the

 country the province is divided into 18 counties include Tay-e-bud,Torbat-e Jum, Torbat-e Heydareyeh,

Chenaran, Khavaf, Dargaz, Sabzevar, Sarakhs, Ferdus, Fariman, Ghochan, Kashmar, Gonabad,

Nieshabor, Bardaskan, Kamlot, Khalil Abad, and Holy city of Mashhad as its capital where, the Holy

Shrine of Hazrat-e Imam Reza 8th Shi’a Imam rested.

Climate

 The northern part of the state has mild (little cold), Semi dry and dry climate, and rest of the state

has warm, hot and dry with little rain.

History

Khorasan means land of sunshine, with many historical and ancient places. The Great Khorasan

 is the most flourishing and biggest region in Iran. This land during the Sassanid dynasty was ruled by a Espahbod (highest military rank) and assistant of four frontier controller officers. Cities of Neishabor, Marv, Harat, Balkh, were the major cities of this period.

Khorasan was until 9th Century under Arabs occupation; the occupation ended when Taheriyan ruled

the country, and gave states its independent. Khorasan suffered a devastating Invasion by

Genghis Khan, during the invasion of Mongolians in (A.D 1218), state was destroyed and more than

half of Persia's population were killed, turning the streets of Persian cities like Neishabor into

"rivers of blood".

After Taherian ,Ghaznavian (AD 977-1186), Salajegheh(AD 1038-1194), Kharazmshahian(A.D 1077-1231)   Once again Khorasan was Invaded by Grandson of Genghis Khan (Taymourian period), and choose

Harut as capital, and later on Ozbacks Occupied the State.

During Qajar dynasty (AD 1779-1924), with interference of British Government in support of Afghans  

 who lived in east portion of Khorasan, Afghanistan separated from Iran and colonized by British.

Khorasan Razavi province is agricultural and industrial state, with products like sugar beet,

cotton and barley. The best souvenir and gift you want to bring from Khorasan is Saffron, and Zereshk.

Hand crafts

Carpet weaving, felt carpet, furrier, mason, crockery, basketry, and mat making.

Mashhad:                                                                                       

    City of Mashhad is a prairie between mountainous area of Binalud and Hezar Majles, with alpine climate.   In 9th century Hazrat-e Imam Reza martyred near Tabas that is why they called it Mashhad "The place of martyrdom"), with a population of 2.8 million at the center of the province of Khorasan Razavi

      and center of tourism in Iran, between 20 and 25 million pilgrims go to the Hazrat-e Imam Reza’s Shrine

   every year.

Mashhad is located 850 kilometers (500 miles) east of Tehran, and is one of the holiest cities in the world

and site of the Holy Shrine  of Hazrat-e Imam Reza, 8th Shi’a Imam and is the second largest city in Iran.

In 10th century, King Mahmud Ghaznavi built mausoleum around the tomb, in 13th century

 after the destruction of city of Tabas Mashhad started to grow.

 

 

Historical Attraction of Razavi Khorasan Province:

 Karat tower in Tayebud. Fire temples of Bazeh-Hoor and White Robat are in Torbat Heydariyeh.

 Tower of Radekan is in Chenaran. Kalat Naderi in Dargaz. Khosro Gard Tower, and schools of Faseheyeh, Kohneh Fakhreye, and Shariatmadar in Sabza- var, Atashkadeh Castle (fire temple) and Cave,

 Tower of Ali Abad and Firoz Abad Minaret are in Kashmar. Gonabad fire temple, Sun Palace of Mil Akhanjan, Robat Sharaf Castle, Aramgah (resting places) of Great Firdausi, Sheik Tossi,

Nader Shah (Emperor of Iran) and Ghazali in Mashhad, and Neishabor Fire Temple are the

most historical attractions in state.

Religious Attractions:

 Mausoleums of Khajeh abdollah, Prince Ghasem, Mosques of Ghyacey-e Shahrokh, and Molana,

 in Ta-ye-bad.

Sheik al Salam, Monastery in Torbat Jum. Graves of Ghotb-Al-Din, and Sheik Heydar in Torbat-e

Haydareyeh, Mosques of Malek Zozan, Gonbad Mosque  in Kha-vaf. Nadery Mosque (Kabud Gonbad) in

Dargaz Monastery of Molana, Hussein Kase-fe and Haj- Mullah Hadi-e Sabzevari, Shrines of Imamzadeh

Shaeb, Seyed Ali Akbar, Jam-e Mosques of Rostay-e Chashm, and Farumad in Sabzevar. Shrines of Imamzadeh Seyed Hamzeh and  Morteza in Kashmar.

 

 Holy shrine of Imamzadeh Ahmad and Jam-e Mosque are in Gonabad. Mosques of Goharshad and

  mausoleum of Har Ameli, holy shrines of

   Imamzadeh Muhammad, Imamzadeh Yahya and Hazrat-e Imam Reza are in Mashhad. Jam-e Mosque

s   shrines

of Imamzadeh Seyed Ibrahim and Mahrogh in Neishabor are the most historical attractions in Khorasan

Razavi province.

Natural attraction:

Caves of, Bezangan, Mazdarand Caves are in Sa-rakhs. Caves of Ableh, Bardeh Rostam, and Garmab Spring in     Ghochan. Fars Cave in Gonabad. Bozangan lake, recreational area  of Kouh Sanghi,Tor-ghabeh,

Shandiz, and Miame, Vakil Abad, Mellat Parks, Springs of Gilass, Gorab, Caves of Zary, Handel Abad, and

 Moghan  in Mashhad. Hot springs of Ta-Ghan Kouh, and Shahan Garmab are in Neishabor.

 

   Ferdowsi: (935-1020) - was born in province of Khorasan Razavi in a village near Tous, in 935

His great epic is Shahnameh ("The Epic of Kings"), which he devoted more than 35 years.

Ferdowsi started his original composition of the Shahnameh in Samanid era in 977 A.D for

    presentation to the Samanid  princes of Khorasan, who were the chief instigators of the revival

of Iranian cultural traditions after the Arab conquest of the seventh century.

His Tomb found during the archeological excavation in 1921A.D, in city of Tous and the construction

of his monument started and finished in 1929 A.D. Inside, his poets had written on stones of the wall,

 which adds to the glory of the monument. Ferdowsi has a unique place in Persian history because of the        strides he made in reviving and regenerating the Persian language and cultural traditions.

His works cited as a crucial component in the persistence of the Persian language.

Many modern Iranians see him as the father of the modern Persian language.

   his work has become sources of inspiration for many writers, poets’ artists, and Iranians always

    have great respect and admiration for him and his work.

  Neishabor:

    Neishabur with long history of civilizations has given birth to, many poets, and thinkers.

You will appreciate Neishabor for what she has to offer in terms of history when you visit the city.

  Neishabor in A.D. 653 fell in to the hands of Muslims and glory of the city started to shine in the world in    such away its name minted on Omavid’s and Abbasid’s coins and became one of the fourth largest

  cities in Khorasan with Neishabor as its capital.                                 

   Neishabor in AD, 12 and AD, 13 was destroyed by Seljuk and then by Mongolians.

   Years later the wave of devastation prevented Neishabor from reaching their pre-invasion population

   level. The city built but never found its glory again.

 

 

 

 

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تاریخ : جمعه 10 خرداد‌ماه سال 1387 | 20:30 | چاپ | نویسنده: « رامسر نیوز » «Ramsarnews» اخبار رامسر | نظرات (0) (0 لایک)
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